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Table 3 Risk factors associated with hypertension, Rwanda 2013

From: A population-based national estimate of the prevalence and risk factors associated with hypertension in Rwanda: implications for prevention and control

Variables Weighted % UOR 95% CI p-value AOR 95% CI p-value
Age group
 15–24 7.9 1    1   
 25–34 13.2 1.79 1.42–2.25 0.000 1.69 1.25–2.80 0.001
 35–44 19.1 2.77 2.19–3.50 0.000 2.53 1.84–3.48 <0.001
 45–54 27.8 4.52 3.56–5.74 0.000 4.37 3.14–6.10 <0.001
 55–64 39.9 7.80 6.08–10.00 0.000 8.02 5.63–11.42 <0.001
Gender
 Male 16.5 1    1   
 Female 14.4 0.85 0.74–0.97 0.018 0.75 0.63–0.88 <0.001
Locality
 Rural 15.0 1    1.0   
 Semi urban 18.5 1.29 1.02–1.61 0.031 1.30 1.01–1.67 0.040
 Urban 15.7 1.05 0.86–1.28 0.614 1.01 0.79–1.28 0.940
Level of Education
 No formal schoool 20.8 1    1.0   
 Primary school 14.2 0.63 0.54–0.74 0.000 0.92 0.77–1.10 0.354
 Secondary school 15.0 0.67 0.53–0.84 0.001 1.22 0.93–1.60 0.151
 University and High 16.9 0.77 0.47–1.28 0.322 1.01 0.58–1.78 0.962
Marital Status
 Never Married 9.7 1    1   
 Married/Cohabitating 17.8 2.02 1.68–2.42 0.000 0.87 0.67–1.13 0.298
 Separated/Divorced/Widowed 24.3 2.99 2.40–3.75 0.000 0.98 0.72–1.34 0.905
Occupation
 Employed/paid 18.7 1    1   
 Self-employed 16.9 0.88 0.64–1.20 0.433 0.80 0.56–1.15 0.223
 Student 5.0 0.23 0.14–0.38 0.000 0.45 0.25–0.80 0.007
 Unemployed 16.4 0.85 0.58–1.26 0.430 0.84 0.55–1.30 0.441
 Not mentioned 6.3 0.29 0.03–2.44 0.257 -   -
Smoking
 Never smoked 14.6 1    1   
 Past smokers 22.2 1.67 1.01–2.74 0.044 1.05 0.60–1.86 0.853
 Current smokers(non-daily) 19.6 1.42 1.06–1.91 0.018 0.84 0.60–1.17 0.301
 Daily smokers 20.9 1.54 1.26–1.90 0.000 0.83 0.65–1.06 0.145
Alcohol consumption
 No alcohol consuption 12.7 1    1   
 Alcohol consumption 17.6 1.47 1.28–1.68 0.000 1.24 1.05–1.44 0.009
Physical activity
 Low 16.9 1    1   
 High 13.7 0.78 0.68–0.90 0.000 1.01 0.86–1.18 0.892
Fruit and vegetable consumption
 5 or more fruit/veg/day 19.4 1    -   -
 < 5 servings fruit/veg /day 15.4 0.75 0.41–1.37 0.358 -   -
BMI (kg/m2)        
 < 18.5 10.6 1    1   
 18.5–24.9 14.5 1.43 1.09–1.87 0.009 1.74 1.30–2.32 0.000
 25–29.9 20.4 2.16 1.60–2.92 0.000 2.60 1.87–3.63 0.000
 ≥ 30 29.9 3.59 2.45–5.26 0.000 3.93 2.54–6.08 0.000
Blood Glucose
 < 5.1 mmol/l 15.4 1   1 1   
 5.1–6.1 mmol/l 14.9 0.96 0.58–1.60 0.885 0.76 0.46–1.28 0.31
 > =6.1 or took medication 22.5 1.60 1.12–2.28 0.009 1.26 0.85–1-87 0.242
Total Cholesterol
 < 5.0 mmol/dl 15.2 1   1 1   
 > = 5.0 mml/dl 26.6 2.03 1.46–2.82 0.000 1.27 0.88–1.84 0.193
HDL Cholesterol        
 Low 14.0 1   1 1   
 Normal HDL Cholesterol 18.9 1.43 1.24–1.64 0.000 1.16 1.00–1.36 0.050