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Table 2 Distribution of respondents by hypertension status, common risk factors and sex, Rwanda, 2013

From: A population-based national estimate of the prevalence and risk factors associated with hypertension in Rwanda: implications for prevention and control

  Men Women Both sex P-value
Variables n % 95% CI n % 95% CI n   95% CI
Overall 2650 16.5 15.1-18.0 4466 14.4 13.4-15.5 7116 15.4 14.6-16.3 0.018
Smoking
 Never smoked 1990 15.9 14.4–17.6 3986 13.5 12.5–14.6 5976 14.6 13.7–15.5 <0.001
 Past smokers 43 16.4 7.3–32.7 59 29.7 19.2–42.9 102 22.2 14.7–31.9
 Current smokers(non-daily) 156 15.5 10.5–22.3 169 26.2 19.9–33.7 325 19.6 15.4–24.5
 Daily smokers 461 20.4 16.8–24.4 252 22.3 17.5–17.9 713 20.9 17.9–24.1
Alcohol consumption
 No 841 12.7 10.6–15.1 2257 12.7 11.4–14.1 3098 12.7 11.6–13.9 <0.001
 Yes 1809 18.6 16.8–20.5 2209 16.4 14.9–18.0 4018 17.6 16.4–18.9
Physical activity
 Low 1264 20.1 17.9–22.4 3007 15.0 13.8–16.3 4271 16.9 15.8–18.0 <0.001
 High 1386 13.8 12.1–15.8 1459 13.5 11.8–15.3 2845 13.7 12.4–15.0
Fruit and vegetable consumption
 5 or more fruit/veg/day 23 34.2 16.9–57.0 44 9.9 4.1–21.5 67 19.4 11.6–30.7 0.364
  < 5 of fruit/veg on/day 2627 16.4 15.0–17.9 4422 14.5 13.5–15.5 7049 15.4 14.5–16.3
BMI(kg/m2)
 Underwieght 249 10.2 7.3–14.0 278 11.3 8.2–15.4 527 10.6 8.4–13.3 <0.001
 Normal weight 2144 15.9 14.4–17.5 3153 13.1 11.9–14.3 5297 14.5 13.6–15-5
 Overweight 231 27.6 21.9–34.1 815 17.6 15.1–20.3 1046 20.4 18.0–23.1
 Obese 26 46.0 26.2–67.2 220 27.3 21.7–33.6 246 29.9 24.3–36.2
Blood glucose
 < 5.1 mmol/l 2332 16.6 15–1–18-1 3991 14.3 13.2–15.4 6323 15.4 14.5–16.3 0.0209
 5.1–6.1 mmol/l 48 14.7 7.4–27.1 63 15.1 8.2–26.0 111 14.9 9.5–22.6
 > =6.1 or took medication 85 19.9 12.1–30.9 125 25.3 18.4–33.9 210 22.5 17.0–29.2
Total Cholesterol
 < 5.0 mmol/dl 2544 16.2 14.8–17.7 4228 14.2 13.2–15.3 6672 15.2 14.3–16.0 <0.001
 > = 5.0 mml/dl 61 34.2 23.4–49.9 154 21.4 15.7–28.4 215 26.6 20.9–33.4
HDL Cholesterol
 < 1.03 mmol/dl for men or <1.29 for women 1583 14.0 12.3–15.7 3196 14.0 12.9–15.3 4779 14.0 13.0–15.3 <0.001
 > =1.03 mmol/dl for men or > = 1.29 for women 1030 21.2 18.7–23.8 1201 15.9 13.9–18.0 2231 18.9 17.2–20.6