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Table 2 Socio-demographic and university-related associations with current waterpipe tobacco smoking and cigarette smoking, stratified by gender (n = 1891)

From: Waterpipe and cigarette tobacco smoking among Palestinian university students: a cross-sectional study

Characteristic Total (n = 1891) Women (n = 962) Men (n = 929)
WTS § CS £ WTS CS WTS CS
n (row %) n (row %) n (row %) n (row %) n (row %) n (row %)
Locality
 Urban & Camp 428 (25.2)* 305 (18.0) 120 (13.7)* 34 (3.9) C 308 (37.5) 271 (33.0)
 Rural 34 (17.6) 35 (18.1) 4 (4.7) 1 (1.2) 30 (28.0) 34 (31.8)
Geographic area of residence
 North West Bank 139 (37.6)*** 125 (33.8)*** 21 (16.3)*** 8 (6.2)** C 118 (49.0)*** 117 (48.5)***
 Central West Bank 107 (29.7) 73 (20.3) 44 (22.3) 14 (7.1) 63 (38.7) 59 (36.2)
 South West Bank 99 (25.3) 52 (13.3) 49 (17.1) 10 (3.5) 50 (47.6) 42 (40.0)
 Gaza Strip 117 (15.2) 90 (11.7) 10 (2.9) 3 (0.9) 107 (25.5) 87 (20.7)
Living arrangement
 With family 381 (23.0)*** 264 (15.9)*** 109 (12.5) 25 (2.9)*** C 272 (34.5)** 239 (30.3)***
 Other 81 (35.4) 76 (33.2) 15 (16.9) 10 (11.2) 66 (47.1) 66 (47.1)
Employment status
 Employed 99 (37.8)*** 99 (37.8)*** 6 (11.8) 4 (7.8) C 93 (44.1)** 95 (45.0)***
 Not employed 363 (22.3) 241 (14.8) 118 (13.0) 31 (3.4) 245 (34.1) 210 (29.2)
Father’s highest educational attainment
 High school & above 368 (25.2) 275 (18.8) 92 (12.5) 31 (4.2) 276 (38.1)* 244 (33.7)
 Less than high school 94 (21.9) 65 (15.2) 32 (14.2) 4 (1.8) 62 (30.4) 61 (29.9)
Mother’s highest educational attainment
 High school & above 329 (25.1) 238 (18.2) 92 (13.6) 26 (3.8) 237 (37.4) 212 (33.5)
 Less than high school 133 (22.9) 102 (17.6) 32 (11.3) 9 (3.2) 101 (34.1) 93 (31.4)
Self-rated financial status
 Poor 116 (20.9)* 103 (18.5) 23 (9.5) 7 (2.9) 93 (29.7)** 96 (30.7)
 Good 168 (24.5) 122 (17.8) 50 (13.8) 10 (2.8) 118 (36.4) 112 (34.6)
 Very good 166 (28.5) 101 (17.4) 49 (15.2) 17 (5.3) 117 (45.2) 84 (32.4)
Current faculty of study
 Arts & humanities 251 (25.0) 191 (19.0) 70 (13.2) 22 (4.1) 181 (38.3) 169 (35.7)*
 Sciences & health sciences 204 (24.1) 140 (16.6) 52 (12.8) 12 (2.9) 152 (34.7) 128 (29.2)
Self-reported academic achievement
 GPAb ≤ 69.9 72 (38.9)*** 67 (36.2)*** 15 (23.1)** 1 (1.5) C 57 (47.5)*** 66 (55.0)***
 GPA 70.0–79.9 272 (28.2) 202 (20.9) 69 (15.1) 20 (4.4) 203 (40.0) 182 (35.8)
 GPA ≥ 80.0 109 (15.4) 63 (8.9) 37 (8.7) 12 (2.8) 72 (25.4) 51 (18.0)
  1. COne cell has expected cell count <5
  2. § WTS Waterpipe tobacco smoking
  3. £ CS Cigarette smoking
  4. b GPA Grade point average
  5. *Significant at the <0.05 level
  6. **Significant at the <0.01 level
  7. ***Significant at the <0.001 level (significance was computed using chi-square analyses by comparing the proportions of smokers in each socio-demographic and university-related category)