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Table 1 Baseline socio-demographic and university-related sample characteristics, stratified by gender (n = 1891)

From: Waterpipe and cigarette tobacco smoking among Palestinian university students: a cross-sectional study

Characteristic Total (n = 1891) Women (n = 962) Men (n = 929)
N % % %
Locality
 Urban 1108 58.6 61.7* 55.3*
 Rural 590 31.2 29.3 33.2
 Camp 193 10.2 8.9 11.5
Geographic area of residence
 North West Bank 370 19.6 13.4*** 25.9***
 Central West Bank 360 19.0 20.5 17.5
 South West Bank 391 20.7 29.7 11.3
 North Gaza Strip 121 6.4 4.6 8.3
 Central Gaza Strip 514 27.2 24.6 29.8
 South Gaza Strip 135 7.1 7.2 7.1
Living arrangement
 With family 1660 87.9 90.7*** 84.9***
 Other 229 12.1 9.3 15.1
Employment status
 Employed 262 13.9 5.3*** 22.7***
 Not employed 1629 86.1 94.7 77.3
Father’s highest educational attainment
 Less than high school 429 22.7 23.4 22.0
 High school 439 23.2 24.1 22.3
 Higher than high school 1023 54.1 52.5 55.8
Mother’s highest educational attainment
 Less than high school 580 30.7 29.5 31.9
 High school 604 31.9 32.3 31.5
 Higher than high school 707 37.4 38.1 36.6
Self-rated financial status
 Poor 556 30.5 26.2*** 34.9***
 Good 686 37.6 39.0 36.2
 Very good 582 31.9 34.8 28.9
University attended
 AAUJ a 384 20.3 13.9*** 26.9***
 Birzeit University 384 20.3 21.0 19.6
 Hebron University 355 18.8 28.9 8.3
 Al-Azhar University 384 20.3 15.4 25.4
 Islamic University 384 20.3 20.8 19.8
Current year at university
 First 550 29.3 31.2* 27.4*
 Second 434 23.1 22.8 23.5
 Third 433 23.1 24.3 21.8
 Fourth and above 460 24.5 21.8 27.4
Current faculty of study
 Arts & humanities 1005 54.3 56.7*** 51.9***
 Sciences 520 28.1 22.4 34.0
 Health sciences 325 17.6 21.0 14.1
Self-reported academic achievement
 GPAb ≤ 69.9 185 10.0 6.9*** 13.2***
 GPA 70.0–79.9 966 52.0 48.4 55.7
 GPA ≥ 80.0 708 38.1 44.8 31.1
  1. a AAUJ Arab American University of Jenin
  2. b GPA Grade point average
  3. *Significant at the <0.05 level
  4. ***Significant at the <0.001 level