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Table 1 Socio-demographics and renal characteristics of the study participants

From: Reduced egfr, elevated urine protein and low level of personal protective equipment compliance among artisanal small scale gold miners at Bibiani-Ghana: a cross-sectional study

Variable Exposed (%)
N = 61
Non-exposed (%)
N = 49
p-value
Age (Years) 35.77 ± 11.61 33. 96 ± 9.678 0.3838
≤19 2 (3.3) 4 (8.2) 0.2863
20–39 40 (65.6) 36 (73.5)  
40–59 17 (27.8) 7 (14.2)  
≥60 2 (3.3) 2 (4.1)  
Marital status   0.0202
Married 41 (67.2) 19 (38.8)  
Divorced 2 (3.3) 1 (2.0)  
Single 17 (27.8) 27 (55.1)  
Widowed 1 (1.6) 2 (4.1)  
Highest level of education   0.1684
Uneducated 14 (23.0) 6 (12.2)  
Primary 31 (50.8) 23 (46.9)  
Secondary 16 (26.2) 20 (40.8)  
Ethnicity    0.1382
Akan 45 (73.8) 32 (65.3)  
Dagomba 10 (16.3) 5 (10.2)  
Frafra 4 (6.6) 5 (10.2)  
Grussi 2 (3.3) 7 (14.3)  
Work duration (Years) 14.72 ± 10.67 10.77 ± 7.305 0.0316
<5 9(14.75) 11(22.44) 0.3287
≥5 52(85.25) 38(77.55)  
Work duration(hours) 9.39 ± 2.73 9.425 ± 2.27 0.942
Urine Protein(mg/dL) 41.72 ± 68.34 0.6122 ± 3.00 < 0.0001
Negative 20(32.79) 45(91.84) <0.0001
Positive 41(67.21) 4(8.16)  
Creatinine(μmol/L) 2.24 ± 1.19 0.974 ± 0.184 < 0.0001
eGFR(mL/min/1.73m 2 ) 57.02 ± 29.57 120.4 ± 20.57 < 0.0001
Blood mercury(μg/L) 18.37 ± 10.47 2.90 ± 1.387 < 0.0001
  1. eGFR = Estimated glomerular filtration rate