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Table 2 Anthropometric indices of non-pregnant women of childbearing age by site

From: Anthropometric indices for non-pregnant women of childbearing age differ widely among four low-middle income populations

Characteristic Equateur Province, DRC Chimaltenango, Guatemala N Karnataka, India Thatta, Pakistan p-value1
Weight (kg), n 1741 1695 1823 2008  
 Mean (SD) 50.7 (7.6) 54.2 (10.0) 46.1 (8.6) 46.2 (7.5)  
 Median (P25, P75) 50.0 (46.0, 55.0) 52.7 (46.9, 59.8) 44.7 (39.9, 50.3) 45.0 (41.0, 49.5)
 Min - Max 31.0–105.0 32.0–101.9 28.7–90.7 30.0–94.5
Height (cm), n 1741 1695 1823 2009  
 Mean (SD) 156.1 (6.2) 145.6 (5.0) 151.3 (5.7) 152.4 (6.2)  
 Median (P25, P75) 156.0 (152.0, 160.0) 145.5 (142.2, 148.9) 151.3 (147.7, 155.2) 152.0 (149.5, 156.3)
 Min - Max 134.5–180.2 127.0–163.4 133.8–173.4 130.6–178.0
 Stunting, n (%)a 242 (13.9) 1364 (80.5) 716 (39.3) 511 (25.4) <0.0001
 Severe stunting, n (%) 33 (1.9) 567 (33.5) 156 (8.6) 168 (8.4) <0.0001
Body Mass Index (BMI; kg/m2), n 1741 1695 1823 2008  
 Mean (SD) 20.8 (2.6) 25.5 (4.3) 20.1 (3.5) 19.9 (3.0) <0.0001
 Median (P25, P75) 20.6 (19.1, 22.1) 24.9 (22.3, 28.0) 19.4 (17.6, 21.9) 19.5 (17.8, 21.5)  
 Min - Max 14.7–39.0 16.5–42.7 13.9–37.6 12.9–38.0
BMI categories, n (%)
 Underweight: BMI <18.5 264 (15.2) 21 (1.2) 677 (37.1) 704 (35.1) <0.0001
 Normal weight: BMI 18.5 - <25 1378 (79.1) 838 (49.4) 968 (53.1) 1182 (58.9)
 Overweight/Obesity: BMI ≥25.0 99 (5.7) 836 (49.3) 178 (9.8) 122 (6.1)
Head Circumference (cm), n 1741 1695 1823 2009  
 Mean (SD) 53.5 (1.7) 53.7 (1.5) 52.5 (1.5) 52.9 (1.8)  
 Median (P25, P75) 53.5 (52.4, 54.5) 53.6 (52.7, 54.7) 52.5 (51.5, 53.5) 53.0 (51.8, 54.0)
 Min - Max 47.0–59.0 41.8–63.7 47.0–59.2 47.0–60.0  
MUAC (cm), n 1741 1695 1823 2009  
 Mean (SD) 25.7 (2.3) 27.2 (3.2) 24.0 (3.1) 23.2 (2.7)  
 Median (P25, P75) 25.5 (24.1, 27.0) 26.9 (25.0, 29.1) 23.5 (21.8, 25.6) 23.0 (21.5, 24.6)  
 Min - Max 19.8–37.5 19.4–57.9 17.0–38.1 15.8–50.0  
 < 23.0, n (%) 152 (8.7) 94 (5.5) 740 (40.6) 982 (48.9) <0.0001
Waist circumference (cm), n 1741 1693 1822 2004  
 Mean (SD) 74.4 (5.6) 76.2 (9.7) 65.2 (8.7) 66.4 (7.0)  
 Median (P25, P75) 74.0 (71.0, 77.4) 75.4 (69.4, 82.1) 63.5 (59.0, 69.7) 65.2 (62.0, 70.0)  
 Min - Max 56.3–112.0 44.1–114.5 47.2–108.0 44.4–101.0  
Hip circumference (cm), n 1740 1694 1823 2002  
 Mean (SD) 87.1 (6.5) 93.7 (8.2) 85.0 (7.2) 84.7 (6.9)  
 Median (P25, P75) 87.0 (83.0, 91.0) 92.7 (88.1, 98.3) 84.0 (80.0, 89.0) 84.0 (80.0, 88.5)  
 Min - Max 50.0–124.0 45.8–132.6 56.0–118.3 47.0–123.6  
Waist-Hip Ratio (WHR), n 1740 1692 1822 1997  
 Mean (SD) 0.86 (0.05) 0.81 (0.07) 0.77 (0.07) 0.78 (0.06) <0.0001
 Median (P25, P75) 0.86 (0.82, 0.89) 0.81 (0.77, 0.85) 0.76 (0.72, 0.80) 0.78 (0.75 0.82)  
 Min - Max 0.61–1.50 0.44–1.86 0.57–1.24 0.55–1.21  
WHR Categorized, n (%)
 Low risk (≤0.80) 254 (14.6) 790 (46.7) 1398 (76.7) 1371 (68.7) <0.0001
 Moderate risk (>0.80- ≤ 0.85) 466 (26.8) 430 (25.4) 236 (13.0) 374 (18.7)
 High risk (>0.85) 1020 (58.6) 472 (27.9) 188 (10.3) 252 (12.6)
  1. 1 P-values from chi-square tests and ANOVA analysis to assess for differences between stunting, severe stunting, BMI, MUAC <23.0, and waist-hip ratio WHR by site
  2. a Stunted defined as -2SD height for age z-scores (HAZ). This is 147.9 cm for 15 y, 148.9 cm for 16 y, 149.5 cm for 17 y, 149.8 cm for 18 y and 150 cm for 19+ y. Severely stunted defined as -3SD HAZ. This is 141.0 cm for 15 y, 142.2 cm for 16 y, 142.8 cm for 17 y, 143.2 cm for 18 y and 143.5 cm for 19+ y [23]