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Table 3 Comparison of the HR-QoL between Mongolian subjects with and without ventilatory impairment when the subjects were stratified by season and household fuel type

From: Effects of air pollution and seasons on health-related quality of life of Mongolian adults living in Ulaanbaatar: cross-sectional studies

Questionnaire Season Warm   Cold
Household fuel type Smoke-free (n = 120) Smoke-rich (n = 210) Smoke-free (n = 128) Smoke-rich (n = 193)
Ventilatory impairment (−) n = 87 (+) n = 33 (−) n = 161 (+) n = 49 (−) n = 99 (+) n = 29 (−) n = 145 (+) n = 48
Item/ subscale
COOP/WONCA [Mean ± SD] Physical fitness 1.8 ± 1.0 2.2 ± 1.4 1.8 ± 1.1 2.0 ± 1.3 1.9 ± 1.2 2.3 ± 1.2 2.2 ± 1.3 2.6 ± 1.6
Feelings 2.2 ± 1.0 2.0 ± 1.1 2.4 ± 1.2 2.3 ± 1.2 2.2 ± 1.1 2.4 ± 1.1 2.3 ± 1.1 2.5 ± 1.1
Daily activities 1.7 ± 0.8 1.7 ± 1.1 2.0 ± 1.0 2.0 ± 1.1 1.9 ± 0.9 1.9 ± 0.9 1.9 ± 0.9 2.3 ± 1.1*
Social activities 1.5 ± 0.8 1.4 ± 0.7 1.7 ± 0.9 1.6 ± 0.9 1.7 ± 1.1 1.5 ± 0.8 1.5 ± 0.8 1.8 ± 1.0
Change of health 2.6 ± 0.9 2.7 ± 0.8 2.7 ± 1.0 2.7 ± 0.9 2.5 ± 1.0 2.4 ± 1.0 2.7 ± 0.8 2.9 ± 0.9
Overall health 3.2 ± 0.9 3.5 ± 0.9 3.4 ± 0.8 3.5 ± 0.6 3.3 ± 0.9 3.3 ± 1.0 3.4 ± 0.8 3.5 ± 0.9
Pain 2.5 ± 1.1 2.6 ± 1.4 2.9 ± 1.2 2.7 ± 1.3 2.5 ± 1.3 2.8 ± 1.2 2.6 ± 1.2 3.1 ± 1.2*
Quality of life 2.3 ± 0.7 2.2 ± 0.6 2.4 ± 0.7 2.5 ± 0.8 2.3 ± 0.8 2.4 ± 0.7 2.4 ± 0.7 2.5 ± 0.7
SF-36 [mean ± SD] Physical functioning 65.2 ± 23.6 57.1 ± 28.5 59.3 ± 28.7 58.4 ± 28.9 71.0 ± 22.1 65.7 ± 17.4 64.7 ± 24.6 54.4 ± 25.2*
Role physical 69.3 ± 26.2 72.3 ± 30.9 60.3 ± 26.0 59.6 ± 26.8 73.0 ± 23.6 62.3 ± 23.3* 65.8 ± 25.9 55.2 ± 28.2*
Bodily pain 67.0 ± 22.9 63.1 ± 29.7 55.2 ± 26.4 55.2 ± 27.9 65.9 ± 24.1 59.3 ± 28.3 60.6 ± 24.2 48.0 ± 21.0**
General health perceptions 55.2 ± 20.7 48.0 ± 24.9 49.7 ± 22.6 51.3 ± 22.5 56.9 ± 22.5 50.8 ± 19.6 50.3 ± 22.8 41.2 ± 22.8*
Vitality 63.9 ± 17.4 64.4 ± 16.6 58.8 ± 19.3 56.6 ± 19.9 65.5 ± 19.2 62.7 ± 19.9 60.1 ± 18.6 55.3 ± 23.1
Social functioning 77.4 ± 21.0 81.1 ± 23.8 71.2 ± 24.1 71.7 ± 24.2 77.5 ± 22.8 72.8 ± 22.9 76.5 ± 21.0 67.7 ± 25.9*
Role emotional 72.2 ± 23.9 74.7 ± 30.9 63.7 ± 27.0 62.1 ± 29.6 74.7 ± 22.1 66.4 ± 24.7 66.4 ± 26.0 58.0 ± 28.0
Mental health 72.7 ± 18.5 77.4 ± 18.9 66.5 ± 19.3 67.7 ± 21.7 71.8 ± 18.1 71.2 ± 18.7 67.1 ± 19.4 62.7 ± 22.3
  1. The COOP/WONCA items were scored on a five-point ordinal scale ranging from 1 to 5 (lower is better), and responses to the SF-36 were calculated the eight subscales from 0 to 100 points (higher is better)
  2. Data are presented as mean ± SD
  3. *P < 0.05; **P < 0.001 between subjects with normal lung functions and those with ventilatory impairment