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Table 2 Association between the factors regarding indoor and outdoor air quality with HR-QoL of Mongolian subjects (n = 666) in Ulaanbaatar in 2012–2013

From: Effects of air pollution and seasons on health-related quality of life of Mongolian adults living in Ulaanbaatar: cross-sectional studies

Questionnaire Dependent variables Median (cutoff) Independent variables
Higher PM2.5 (10 μg/m3) Smoke-rich household fuel
Crude OR (95% C.I.) Adjusted OR (95% C.I.) Crude OR (95% C.I.) Adjusted OR (95% C.I.)
COOP/WONCA Physical fitness 1.0 1.06 (1.01–1.12) 1.12 (1.05–1.18) 1.01 (0.73–1.38) 1.13 (0.80–1.61)
Feelings 2.0 1.05 (1.00–1.10) 1.02 (0.96–1.09) 1.20 (0.86–1.67) 1.36 (0.93–1.99)
Daily activities 2.0 1.01 (0.95–1.06) 0.97 (0.90–1.03) 1.29 (0.90–1.84) 1.33 (0.89–1.99)
Social activities 1.0 1.03 (0.97–1.08) 0.99 (0.93–1.05) 1.28 (0.92–1.77) 1.33 (0.93–1.91)
Change of health 3.0 0.96 (0.90–1.03) 0.92 (0.85–1.00) 1.47 (0.94–2.30) 1.52 (0.92–2.49)
Overall health 4.0 1.01 (0.96–1.06) 1.00 (0.94–1.06) 1.28 (0.94–1.76) 1.46 (1.02–2.07)
Pain 3.0 1.00 (0.94–1.05) 0.98 (0.92–1.05) 1.38 (0.98–1.95) 1.58 (1.07–2.33)
Quality of life 2.0 1.06 (1.01–1.12) 1.02 (0.96–1.08) 1.58 (1.14–2.19) 1.68 (1.17–2.41)
SF-36 Physical functioning 65.0 0.99 (0.94–1.04) 0.98 (0.92–1.04) 1.29 (0.94–1.78) 1.39 (0.97–2.00)
Role physical 62.5 0.98 (0.93–1.03) 0.95 (0.90–1.01) 1.68 (1.22–2.32) 1.63 (1.15–2.31)
Bodily pain 61.0 0.96 (0.91–1.01) 0.92 (0.87–0.98) 1.68 (1.22–2.31) 1.97 (1.37–2.84)
General health perceptions 50.0 1.00 (0.95–1.05) 0.98 (0.92–1.04) 1.48 (1.08–2.03) 1.78 (1.24–2.55)
Vitality 62.5 1.00 (0.95–1.05) 0.98 (0.92–1.04) 1.55 (1.12–2.13) 1.52 (1.07–2.16)
Social functioning 75.0 0.99 (0.94–1.04) 0.96 (0.90–1.02) 1.32 (0.95–1.83) 1.30 (0.90–1.86)
Role emotional 66.7 1.00 (0.95–1.05) 0.97 (0.92–1.03) 1.82 (1.31–2.53) 1.93 (1.35–2.76)
Mental health 70.0 1.04 (0.98–1.09) 1.00 (0.94–1.06) 1.76 (1.28–2.42) 1.69 (1.19–2.41)
  1. The COOP/WONCA items were scored on a five-point ordinal scale ranging from 1 to 5 (lower is better), and responses to the SF-36 were calculated the eight subscales from 0 to 100 points (higher is better). The median value of the scores were used for cutoff point. The COOP/WONCA chart and SF-36 subscale scores were dichotomized as dependent variables (0 for ≤50 percentiles of the scores (less affected); 1 for >50 percentiles (more affected)). Odds ratios were adjusted by age, gender, BMI, ventilatory impairment, smoking status, self-reported asthma, time spent outdoors, and six kinds of respiratory symptoms in addition to PM2.5 concentration and household fuel type.