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Table 1 Characteristics of participants

From: Effects of air pollution and seasons on health-related quality of life of Mongolian adults living in Ulaanbaatar: cross-sectional studies

N = 666
Characteristics    Smoke-rich fuel user
 Gender N % N %
  Overall 666 100 403 61.9
  Male 242 36.3 155 65.4
  Female 424 63.7 248 59.9
 Age (years)
  Overall (mean ± SD) 54.0 ± 10.0 -
  Smoke-rich fuel user 53.3 ± 9.5 -
  Smoke-free fuel user 55.3 ± 10.7 -
 BMI (kg/m2)
  Overall (mean ± SD) 27.6 ± 5.1 -
  Smoke-rich fuel user 27.7 ± 5.2 -
  Smoke-free fuel user 27.7 ± 4.9 -
 Smoking status N % N %
  Never-smoker 447 67.1 257 59.4
  Ex-smoker 45 6.8 28 63.4
  Current smoker 174 26.1 118 67.8
 Time spent outdoors (hours)
  Overall (mean ± SD) 6.0 ± 4.9 -
  Smoke-rich fuel user 6.0 ± 5.0 -
  Smoke-free fuel user 6.2 ± 4.7 -
 Prevalence N % N %
  Ventilatory impairment 164 24.6 97 61.0
  Self-reported asthma 146 22.3 97 68.3