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Table 4 Hazard ratios (HRs)a with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for disability pension, sickness absence and unemployment and region of birthb,c

From: Labour-market marginalisation after mental disorders among young natives and immigrants living in Sweden

  Region of birth Univariate analysis Multivariate analyses
  Model 1d Model 2e
HR (95% CI)
Disability pension
 No mental disorders Sweden 1 1 1
  Western countries 1.25 (1.19–1.31) 1.15 (1.09–1.21) 0.81 (0.77–0.85)
 Nordic countries 1.17 (1.05–1.31) 1.04 (0.93–1.15) 0.80 (0.72–0.90)
 EU 0.82 (0.74–0.92) 0.86 (0.77–0.96) 0.60 (0.53–0.66)
 Europe outside EU 1.61 (1.51–1.71) 1.37 (1.29–1.46) 0.95 (0.89–1.01)
 North America/Oceania 0.70 (0.55–0.88) 0.75 (0.59–0.95) 0.49 (0.38–0.61)
Non-Western countries 1.28 (1.22–1.34) 1.07 (1.02–1.12) 0.65 (0.62–0.68)
 South America 1.07 (0.94–1.21) 0.99 (0.87–1.13) 0.76 (0.67–0.86)
 Asia 1.37 (1.30–1.44) 1.14 (1.08–1.21) 0.68 (0.65–0.72)
 Africa 1.07 (0.96–1.21) 0.81 (0.72–0.91) 0.47 (0.42–0.53)
 Mental disorders Sweden 12.08 (11.75–12.42) 9.32 (9.05–9.59) 6.55 (6.36–6.75)
  Western countries 12.24 (11.29–13.28) 8.42 (7.76–9.14) 4.80 (4.42–5.22)
 Nordic countries 14.04 (11.84–16.66) 9.11 (7.68–10.81) 5.47 (4.61–6.49)
 EU 11.53 (9.70–13.71) 8.92 (7.50–10.61) 5.25 (4.41–6.25)
 Europe outside EU 12.26 (10.96–13.71) 8.00 (7.14–8.97) 4.40 (3.93–4.94)
 North America/Oceania 9.53 (6.62–13.71) 7.91 (5.50–11.39) 4.77 (3.31–6.86)
Non-Western countries 11.97 (11.14–12.87) 8.57 (7.97–9.22) 4.76 (4.42–5.13)
 South America 10.86 (9.01–13.1) 8.13 (6.73–9.80) 5.33 (4.42–6.43)
 Asia 11.81 (10.84–12.87) 8.58 (7.87–9.35) 4.64 (4.25–5.06)
 Africa 13.93 (11.68–16.61) 8.90 (7.46–10.62) 4.80 (4.02–5.73)
Long-term sickness absence
 No mental disorders Sweden 1 1 1
  Western countries 1.12 (1.10–1.15) 1.07 (1.05–1.10) 1.15 (1.12–1.18)
 Nordic countries 1.08 (1.02–1.14) 1.05 (1.00–1.11) 1.08 (1.02–1.14)
 EU 0.80 (0.76–0.84) 0.87 (0.82–0.91) 0.96 (0.91–1.01)
 Europe outside EU 1.43 (1.39–1.48) 1.22 (1.18–1.26) 1.30 (1.26–1.34)
 North America/Oceania 0.62 (0.56–0.70) 0.72 (0.64–0.81) 0.82 (0.73–0.92)
Non-Western countries 1.09 (1.07–1.12) 0.94 (0.92–0.97) 1.07 (1.05–1.10)
 South America 1.10 (1.03–1.17) 1.01 (0.95–1.08) 1.06 (1.00–1.13)
 Asia 1.13 (1.11–1.16) 0.97 (0.95–1.00) 1.11 (1.08–1.14)
 Africa 0.96 (0.91–1.02) 0.79 (0.74–0.83) 0.92 (0.87–0.97)
 Mental disorders Sweden 3.80 (3.72–3.88) 3.28 (3.21–3.36) 2.11 (2.07–2.16)
  Western countries 3.31 (3.07–3.57) 2.52 (2.34–2.72) 1.93 (1.79–2.08)
 Nordic countries 3.71 (3.16–4.36) 2.84 (2.42–3.34) 1.85 (1.57–2.17)
 EU 3.27 (2.80–3.83) 2.73 (2.34–3.20) 2.06 (1.76–2.41)
 Europe outside EU 3.34 (3.01–3.70) 2.39 (2.16–2.66) 1.96 (1.77–2.18)
 North America/Oceania 2.12 (1.47–3.05) 1.89 (1.32–2.73) 1.46 (1.01–2.10)
Non-Western countries 2.80 (2.61–3.00) 2.20 (2.05–2.36) 1.85 (1.73–1.99)
 South America 2.88 (2.42–3.44) 2.39 (2.00–2.84) 1.85 (1.55–2.20)
 Asia 2.89 (2.66–3.13) 2.27 (2.09–2.46) 1.92 (1.77–2.08)
 Africa 2.27 (1.85–2.79) 1.72 (1.40–2.11) 1.54 (1.25–1.89)
Long-term unemployment
 No mental disorders Sweden 1 1 1
  Western countries 2.03 (2.01–2.06) 2.09 (2.06–2.12) 1.60 (1.58–1.63)
 Nordic countries 1.03 (0.99–1.07) 1.08 (1.04–1.12) 0.93 (0.89–0.97)
 EU 1.49 (1.45–1.53) 1.66 (1.62–1.71) 1.33 (1.30–1.37)
 Europe outside EU 2.94 (2.89–2.99) 2.82 (2.77–2.87) 2.03 (2.00–2.07)
 North America/Oceania 1.50 (1.41–1.58) 1.68 (1.59–1.78) 1.26 (1.19–1.33)
Non-Western countries 3.04 (3.01–3.08) 2.87 (2.84–2.91) 2.01 (1.98–2.03)
 South America 2.42 (2.34–2.49) 2.32 (2.25–2.39) 1.75 (1.69–1.80)
 Asia 3.08 (3.04–3.12) 2.94 (2.90–2.98) 2.05 (2.02–2.07)
 Africa 3.44 (3.35–3.52) 3.10 (3.03–3.18) 2.10 (2.05-2.15)
 Mental disorders Sweden 2.41 (2.36–2.46) 1.95 (1.92–1.99) 1.37 (1.34–1.39)
  Western countries 3.65 (3.45–3.85) 2.96 (2.80–3.12) 1.80 (1.71–1.90)
 Nordic countries 2.65 (2.31–3.05) 2.08 (1.81–2.39) 1.39 (1.21–1.59)
 EU 3.24 (2.88–3.64) 2.77 (2.47–3.12) 1.72 (1.53–1.94)
 Europe outside EU 4.27 (3.99–4.59) 3.43 (3.20–3.68) 2.00 (1.87–2.15)
 North America/Oceania 3.44 (2.76–4.28) 3.04 (2.44–3.79) 1.81 (1.45–2.25)
Non-Western countries 4.19 (4.01–4.38) 3.34 (3.20–3.49) 2.00 (1.91–2.09)
 South America 3.77 (3.35–4.23) 2.92 (2.60–3.28) 1.79 (1.59–2.01)
 Asia 4.24 (4.02–4.46) 3.46 (3.28–3.64) 2.09 (1.98–2.2)
 Africa 4.46 (3.97–5.01) 3.38 (3.01–3.79) 1.91 (1.70–2.15)
  1. aAll analyses were conducted by Cox regression with both fixed and time dependent covariates and competing risks
  2. bAll individuals were 20–35 years, and resident in Sweden at 31st of December 2004 (N = 1,753,544)
  3. CWestern countries (a. Nordic countries except Sweden, b. EU, except Sweden, Finland and Denmark, c. Europe outside EU and Nordic countries and d. North America and Oceania); non-Western countries (a. Africa, b. Asia and c. South-America)
  4. dModel 1: Age, sex, educational level, family composition, type of living area
  5. eModel 2: Outcome disability pension; Model 1 + somatic disorder 2004–2010, labour market attachment in 2004, ≥180 days of unemployment annually 2004–2010. Outcome long-term sickness absence; Model 1 + somatic disorder 2004–2010, labour market attachment in 2004, ≥180 days of unemployment annually 2004–2010, sickness absence 2004 (0, 1–89, ≥90 days) Outcome long-term unemployment; Model 1 + somatic disorder 2004–2010, labour market attachment in 2004, ≥90 days of sickness absence annually 2004–2010, unemployment 2004 (0, 1–179, ≥180 days)