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Table 3 Multivariate hazard ratios (HRs)a with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for disability pension, sickness absence and unemployment and region of birthb,c stratified on labour market attachment

From: Labour-market marginalisation after mental disorders among young natives and immigrants living in Sweden

  Region of birth Disability pension Long-term sickness absence Long-term unemployment
  HR (95% CI)  
Income from work during 2004
 No mental disorders Sweden 1 1 1
  Western countries 1.55 (1.45–1.67) 1.29 (1.25–1.33) 2.04 (2.00–2.09)
Non-Western countries 1.36 (1.26–1.47) 1.35 (1.31–1.39) 2.45 (2.40–2.50)
 Mental disorders Sweden 8.96 (8.54–9.39) 2.20 (2.13–2.26) 1.67 (1.62–1.72)
  Western countries 10.35 (8.95–11.97) 2.23 (2.02–2.47) 2.78 (2.53–3.05)
Non-Western countries 9.09 (7.82–10.56) 2.15 (1.94–2.37) 2.62 (2.40–2.85)
Income, but not from work, during 2004
 No mental disorders Sweden 1 1 1
  Western countries 0.70 (0.60–0.81) 0.98 (0.92–1.05) 1.36 (1.32–1.40)
Non-Western countries 0.72 (0.63–0.81) 0.92 (0.87–0.97) 1.66 (1.62–1.70)
 Mental disorders Sweden 6.68 (6.22–7.18) 2.43 (2.30–2.56) 1.28 (1.23–1.33)
  Western countries 4.57 (3.60–5.79) 2.06 (1.72–2.46) 1.57 (1.40–1.75)
Non-Western countries 5.74 (4.80–6.86) 2.28 (1.98–2.63) 1.72 (1.57–1.88)
No income during 2004
 No mental disorders Sweden 1 1 1
  Western countries 0.42 (0.39–0.46) 0.71 (0.66–0.75) 1.15 (1.12–1.18)
Non-Western countries 0.39 (0.36–0.42) 0.60 (0.56–0.63) 1.59 (1.56–1.62)
 Mental disorders Sweden 4.54 (4.35–4.74) 1.55 (1.47–1.64) 1.13 (1.11–1.17)
  Western countries 3.02 (2.71–3.38) 1.21 (1.04–1.41) 1.33 (1.23–1.44)
Non-Western countries 3.15 (2.87–3.46) 1.11 (0.96–1.28) 1.72 (1.61–1.84)
  1. aAll analyses were conducted by Cox regression with both fixed and time dependent covariates and competing risks. Multivariate model: Outcome disability pension; Model 1 + somatic disorder 2004–2010, ≥180 days of unemployment annually 2004–2010. Outcome long-term sickness absence; Model 1 + somatic disorder 2004–2010, ≥180 days of unemployment annually 2004–2010, sickness absence 2004 (0, 1–89, ≥90 days) Outcome long-term unemployment; Model 1 + somatic disorder 2004–2010, ≥90 days of sickness absence annually 2004–2010, unemployment 2004 (0, 1–179, ≥180 days).
  2. bAll individuals were 20–35 years, and resident in Sweden at 31st of December 2004 (N = 1,753,544)
  3. cWestern countries (a. Nordic countries except Sweden, b. EU, except Sweden, Finland and Denmark, c. Europe outside EU and Nordic countries and d. North America and Oceania); non-Western countries (a. Africa, b. Asia and c. South-America)