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Table 2 Hazard ratios (HRs)a with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for disability pension, sickness absence and unemployment for individuals with or without mental disorders 2001–2004b, c

From: Labour-market marginalisation after mental disorders among young natives and immigrants living in Sweden

  Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis  
   HR (95%CI)
Disability pension   Model 1d Model 2e
No mental disorders 1 1 1
Mental disorders 11.63 (11.34–11.93) 9.01 (8.78–9.25) 6.73 (6.55–6.91)
 Affective disorders 13.38 (12.82–13.96) 10.42 (9.98–10.88) 8.18 (7.83–8.54)
 Behavioural/emotional/developmental disorders 9.47 (8.78–10.21) 8.54 (7.92–9.21) 7.16 (6.64–7.72)
 Organic disorders/mental retardation 23.75 (19.71–28.62) 19.37 (16.07–23.34) 14.37 (11.92–17.32)
 Personality disorders 29.71 (27.13–32.53) 20.08 (18.32–22.00) 12.55 (11.45–13.75)
 Schizophrenia/non-affective psychoses 45.63 (42.58–48.89) 38.85 (36.25–41.64) 25.33 (23.62–27.17)
 Neurotic/stress-related/somatoform disorders 10.24 (9.84–10.67) 7.71 (7.40–8.03) 6.03 (5.79–6.29)
 Substance abuse disorders 7.24 (6.84–7.66) 5.38 (5.08–5.70) 3.52 (3.32–3.73)
Long-term sickness absence
No mental disorders 1 1 1
Mental disorders 3.61 (3.53–3.68) 3.11 (3.05–3.18) 2.04 (2.00–2.09)
 Affective disorders 4.53 (4.37–4.69) 3.73 (3.60–3.86) 2.09 (2.01–2.16)
 Behavioural/emotional/developmental disorders 2.87 (2.68–3.06) 2.62 (2.45–2.80) 1.91 (1.78–2.04)
 Organic disorders/mental retardation 3.63 (2.89–4.57) 3.52 (2.80–4.43) 2.11 (1.68–2.65)
 Personality disorders 5.36 (4.83–5.94) 4.22 (3.81–4.69) 2.60 (2.34–2.89)
 Schizophrenia/non-affective psychoses 5.47 (4.98–6.01) 5.56 (5.06–6.11) 3.16 (2.87–3.47)
 Neurotic/stress-related/somatoform disorders 3.64 (3.53–3.76) 2.92 (2.83–3.02) 1.91 (1.85–1.98)
 Substance abuse disorders 2.62 (2.50–2.74) 2.54 (2.43–2.66) 2.07 (1.98–2.17)
Long-term unemployment    
No mental disorders 1 1 1
Mental disorders 2.18 (2.14–2.21) 1.72 (1.69–1.75) 1.23 (1.21–1.25)
 Affective disorders 2.11 (2.04–2.18) 1.78 (1.72–1.84) 1.29 (1.25–1.33)
 Behavioural/emotional/developmental disorders 1.70 (1.60–1.80) 1.55 (1.47–1.64) 1.27 (1.20–1.34)
 Organic disorders/mental retardation 1.99 (1.62–2.44) 1.56 (1.27–1.92) 1.19 (0.97–1.47)
 Personality disorders 2.50 (2.26–2.77) 1.77 (1.60–1.96) 1.17 (1.06–1.30)
 Schizophrenia/non-affective psychoses 2.60 (2.37–2.85) 2.15 (1.96–2.36) 1.29 (1.17–1.41)
 Neurotic/stress-related/somatoform disorders 2.08 (2.03–2.14) 1.70 (1.65–1.75) 1.27 (1.23–1.30)
 Substance abuse disorders 2.53 (2.45–2.61) 1.69 (1.64–1.75) 1.12 (1.09–1.16)
  1. aAll analyses were conducted by Cox regression with both fixed and time dependent covariates and competing risks
  2. bAll individuals were 20–35 years old, and resident in Sweden at 31st of December 2004 (N = 1,753,544)
  3. cWestern countries (a. Nordic countries except Sweden, b. EU except Sweden, Finland and Denmark, c. Europe outside EU and Nordic countries and d. North America and Oceania); non-Western countries (a. Africa, b. Asia and c. South-America)
  4. dModel 1: Age, sex, educational level, family composition, type of living area
  5. eModel 2: Outcome disability pension: Model 1 + somatic disorder 2004–2010, labour market attachment in 2004, ≥180 days of unemployment annually 2004–2010. Outcome long-term sickness absence: Model 1 + somatic disorder 2004–2010, labour market attachment in 2004, ≥180 days of unemployment annually 2004–2010, sickness absence 2004 (0, 1–89, ≥90 days) Outcome long-term unemployment: Model 1 + somatic disorder 2004–2010, labour market attachment in 2004, ≥90 days of sickness absence annually 2004–2010, unemployment 2004 (0, 1–179, ≥180 days)