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Table 2 Relative risk (RR) of mortality of dynamic changes in self-perceived uselessness, CLHLS 2005–2014, Ages 65+, unweighted

From: Changes in perceived uselessness and risks for mortality: evidence from a National sample of older adults in China

  Model I Model II Model III Model IV Model V Model VI
Changes in perceived uselessness
High-high (vs. low-low) 1.80 ***
(1.57–2.08)
1.68 ***
(1.46–1.93)
1.73 ***
(1.50–1.99)
1.39 ***
(1.21–1.61)
1.26 **
(1.09–1.46)
1.16 *
(1.00–1.35)
Low-moderate / moderate-high (vs. low-low) 1.42 ***
(1.27–1.59)
1.35 ***
(1.21–1.51)
1.40 ***
(1.26–1.69)
1.22 ***
(1.09–1.36)
1.12 *
(1.00–1.25)
1.07
(0.95–1.20)
Moderate-moderate (vs. low-low) 1.50 ***
(1.32–1.71)
1.44 ***
(1.26–1.64)
1.48 ***
(1.30–1.69)
1.33 ***
(1.16–1.51)
1.27 ***
(1.12–1.46)
1.22 **
(1.06–1.39)
High-moderate / moderate-low (vs. low-low) 1.23 ***
(1.09–1.37)
1.18 **
(1.05–1.32)
1.21 **
(1.08–1.35)
1.10
(0.98–1.23)
1.08
(0.96–1.21)
1.03
(0.92–1.15)
Log pseudolikelihood −41,087.8 −41,056.3 −41,020.5 −40,761.4 −40,701.5 −40,565.9
  1. Note: Model I controlled for background characteristics (i.e., age, sex, ethnicity). Model II added socioeconomic resources (i.e., educational attainment, urban-rural residence, lifetime occupation, economic independence, and family economic conditions). Model III added family and support environment (i.e., marital status, frequently-contacted persons, concordance with children, concordance in living arrangement, intergenerational exchanges) to Model I. Model IV added health behaviors and lifestyle (smoking, alcohol consumption, regular exercise, leisure activities, and social participation) to Model I. Model V added psychological and physical health conditions (ADL and IADL disabilities, cognitive impairment, chronic disease conditions, and psychological well-being) to Model I. Model VI included all covariates
  2. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001