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Table 1 Sample distributions of study variables for the period 2005–2011, CLHLS

From: Changes in perceived uselessness and risks for mortality: evidence from a National sample of older adults in China

Variables Sample % Death %
Total (n) 13,976 33.1
Changes in perceived uselessness   
 High-high 6.4 38.3
 Low-moderate/moderate-high 27.0 30.1
 Moderate-moderate 10.7 31.7
 High-moderate / moderate-low 24.2 26.2
 Low-low 15.4 19.6
 High/moderate/low- unable to answer 8.1 62.8
 Unable to answer - high/moderate/low 5.8 45.8
 Persistently unable to answer 2.4 75.3
Covariates   
Background Characteristics   
  Mean age (years) 85.1
  Ages 65–79a 36.0 10.9
  Ages 80–89a 27.6 28.6
  Ages 90–99a 25.2 53.3
  Ages 100+a 11.1 69.4
  Females 54.6 34.3
  Males 45.4 31.5
  Non-Han ethnicity 11.0 29.5
  Han ethnicity 89.0 33.3
Socioeconomic Resources   
  Education, 0 year of schooling 59.9 37.4
  Education, 1–6 years of schooling 29.5 27.3
  Education, 7+ years of schooling 10.6 23.2
  Rural 52.9 33.8
  Urban 47.1 32.0
  Non-White collar occupation 91.8 33.6
  White collar occupation 8.2 25.4
  Economic dependence 71.3 38.3
  Economic independence 28.7 19.5
  Fair or poor family economic condition 84.7 33.6
  Rich family economic condition 15.3 29.3
Family and Support Environment   
  Currently not married 62.1 41.6
  Currently married 37.9 18.8
  Family members are most frequent contacts 75.6 32.0
  Friends/relatives are most frequent contacts 18.0 27.7
  No one to contact 6.4 58.7
  No coresidence with children 43.1 24.0
  Coresidence with children 56.9 39.6
  Discordance in living arrangement 26.4 35.6
  Concordance in living alone/with spouse only 30.1 20.3
  Concordance in coresidence with children 43.5 39.9
  Not-receiving money/food from children 21.5 33.0
  Receiving money/food from children 78.5 32.9
  Not-giving money/food to children 76.4 35.8
  Giving money/food to children 23.6 23.6
Health Behaviors and Lifestyle   
  Not currently smoking 81.9 34.5
  Currently smoking 18.1 25.3
  No current alcohol consumption 82.8 34.2
  Current alcohol consumption 17.2 26.8
  No regular exercise 66.0 39.0
  Regular exercise 34.0 21.0
  Leisure activity (low level) 29.7 61.2
  Leisure activity (medium level) 30.9 29.2
  Leisure activity (high level) 39.4 14.4
  Social participation (low level) 75.3 38.2
  Social participation (medium level) 10.6 18.3
  Social participation (high level) 14.1 15.6
Psychological and Physical Health Status   
  ADL independent 77.3 24.6
  ADL dependent 22.7 61.1
  IADL independent 36.4 11.6
  IADL dependent 63.6 45.1
  Cognitively unimpaired 63.7 20.3
  Cognitively impaired 36.3 55.0
  Having no chronic disease 39.3 33.8
  Having 1+ chronic disease 60.7 32.3
  Not often as joyful as when younger 64.2 35.9
  Often as joyful as when younger 35.8 27.5
  Not often lonely 93.1 32.5
  Often lonely 6.9 38.2
  Not optimistic 24.3 37.8
  Optimistic 75.7 31.3
  No self-control 41.7 42.7
  Self-control 58.3 25.9
  1. Note: (1) Values are based on 13,976 observations (from 10,051 individuals interviewed from 2005 to 2014 [refer to Fig. 1]); (2) Death % refers to deaths occurring in 2008–2011 or 2011–2014 among 9888 individuals; (3) Results are unweighted
  2. aAge at the beginning of the survey interval 2008–2011 or 2011–2014