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Table 1 Demographic Characteristics of Subjects from Full-dataset and Sub-dataset by Gender

From: Retirement and mental health: does social participation mitigate the association? A fixed-effects longitudinal analysis

  Full-sample   Sub-sample  
Men Women Men Women
N = 28,868 N = 33,569 N = 5866 N = 6621
Mean SD Mean SD p-value Mean SD Mean SD p-value
Age in 2010 72.9 5.6 73.1 5.6 <.0001 72.9 5.6 73.1 5.6 0.02
GDS-15 score change (2010 → 2013) 0.1 2.4 0.03 2.4 0.0005 0.1 2.5 −0.01 2.3 0.02
  n % n %   n % n %  
Working status in 2010
 Working status 8095 30.3 5287 19.2 <.0001 1687 31.1 1058 19.5 <.0001
 Not working 17,530 65.6 16,556 60   3510 64.7 3231 59.6  
 Never worked 1087 4.1 5730 20.8   232 4.3 1133 20.9  
 Missing 2156   5996    437   1199   
Depression in 2010
 Having depression in 2010 6353 25.5 6816 25.5 0.84 1340 26.4 1354 25.7 0.4
 Not having depression in 2010 18,602 74.5 19,878 74.5   3730 73.6 3913 74.3  
 Missing 3913   6875    796   1354   
Household income in 2010 (10,000 Japanese Yen)
 < 300 12,129 45.6 15,051 54 <.0001 2429 44.8 2921 53.2 <.0001
 300–600 9759 36.7 8427 30.2   2027 37.4 1676 30.5  
 < 600 4711 17.7 4393 15.8   969 17.9 897 16.3  
 Missing 2269   5698    441   1127   
Marital status in 2010
 Married 24,608 87.9 19,790 61.3 <.0001 5007 88 3894 61.1 <.0001
 Non-married 3374 12.1 12,520 38.8   685 12 2484 39  
 Missing 886   1259    174   243   
IADL in 2010
 13 9401 36.6 15,590 53.1 <.0001 1882 36 3052 52.7 <.0001
 10, 12 12,959 50.4 11,548 39.3   2642 50.5 2313 40  
 ≤ 9 3351 13 2250 7.7   710 13.6 423 7.3  
 Missing 3157   4181    632   833   
The number of friends subjects met in the past 1 month in 2010
 0 2041 7.6 1065 3.5 <.0001 419 7.7 198 3.3 <.0001
 1, 5 11,426 42.5 12,589 40.8   2302 42.3 2495 41.1  
 6- 13,396 49.9 17,236 55.8   2728 50.1 3385 55.7  
 Missing 2005   2679    417   543   
Colleague as a friend who subjects met frequently in 2010
 Having colleague as a friend 11,439 42.4 8027 25.4 <.0001 2365 43.2 1522 24.4 <.0001
 Not having colleague as a friend 15,563 57.6 23,625 74.6   3116 56.9 4713 75.6  
 Missing 1866   1917    385   386   
Emotional social support from friends in 2010
 Having emotional social support 7233 26.6 15,156 47.9 <.0001 1425 25.7 2974 47.9 <.0001
 Not having emotional social support 19,950 73.4 16,482 52.1   4112 74.3 3234 52.1  
 Missing 1685   1931    329   413   
Instrumental social support from friends in 2010
 Having instrumental social support 632 2.3 2144 6.8 <.0001 114 2.1 400 6.4 <.0001
 Not having instrumental social support 26,793 97.7 29,539 93.2   5454 97.8 5844 93.6  
 Missing 1444   1886    298   377   
Occupational class
 Higher 9265 36.2 3031 12.6 <.0001 1879 36.5 605 12.9 <.0001
 Lower 16,325 63.8 20,940 87.4   3268 63.5 4083 87.1  
 missing 3153   6394    698   1326   
Social participation with roles in 2013
 Participated in social activities with roles 6536 26.3 7361 27.8 0.001 1292 25.6 1461 28 0.005
 Not participated in social activities with roles 18,346 73.7 19,132 72.2   3764 74.5 3754 72  
 missing 3986   7076    810   1406   
Recreational social participation in 2013
 Participated in recreational social activities 11,714 46.5 16,067 58 <.0001 2367 46.3 3167 57.9 <.0001
 Not participated in recreational social activities 13,458 53.5 11,657 42.1   2751 53.8 2304 42.1  
 missing 3696   5845    748   1150   
A sense of meaning in life in 2013
 Having a sense of meaning in life in 2013       4666 86.2 5036 84.2 0.003
 Not having a sense of meaning in life in 2013      748 13.8 945 15.8  
 missing       452   640   
  1. GDS-15 the short version of the Geriatric Depression Scale (ranging from 0 to 15, higher score indicates more depressive symptoms). Depression in 2010 was defined by GDS-15 score of 5 or above. Non-married includes being divorced, widowed, and single. IADL Instrumental activities of daily living (ranging from 0 to 13, higher score indicates more independency in daily livings). Higher occupational class = professionals and engineering, managers. Lower occupational class = clerical support workers, service and sales workers, craft and related trades workers, skilled agricultural, forestry, and fishery workers, others. Social participation with roles = volunteering clubs, neighborhood councils. Recreational social participation = sports organizations, hobby clubs, or older adults clubs. Full-sample: subjects from all of the five modules of JAGES. Sub-sample: subjects from only one of the five modules from JAGES that includes information on a sense of meaning in life. We used t-test for age and changes in GDS score and chi-square test for other variables to calculate p-values
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