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Table 3 Meta-regression analyses of the prevalence of problem gambling and moderate-risk problem gambling. Parameter estimates have been exponentiated and should be interpreted as prevalence ratios, analogous to odds ratios

From: A meta-regression analysis of 41 Australian problem gambling prevalence estimates and their relationship to total spending on electronic gaming machines

Estimates of α and β coefficients and descriptive statistics Problem gambling Moderate-risk problem gambling
Weakly informative Informative Fixed Weakly informative Informative Fixed
Intercept 0.004 [0.002, 0.006] 0.004 [0.002, 0.006] 0.003 [0.002, 0.006] 0.021 [0.011, 0.042] 0.019 [0.010, 0.036] 0.016 [0.008, 0.032]
% HDI lost on EGMs and at casinos 1.35 [1.04, 1.74] 1.33 [1.04, 1.71] 1.29 [0.98, 1.72] 0.94 [0.66, 1.34] 0.95 [0.68, 1.32] 0.97 [0.69, 1.37]
Years before 2015 0.99 [0.94, 1.04] 1.00 [0.96, 1.05] 1.04 [1.02, 1.07] 1.00 [0.93, 1.08] 1.02 [0.96, 1.08] 1.05 [1.02, 1.09]
Administered face-to-face 1.02 [0.59, 1.78] 1.02 [0.60, 1.74] 1.08a 1.17 [0.55, 2.53] 1.33 [0.71, 2.55] 2.07a
Used SOGS 2.37 [1.37, 4.00] 2.18 [1.42, 3.34] 1.62a 1.20 [0.57, 2.52] 0.99 [0.55, 1.76] 0.59a
Monthly frequency threshold 1.26 [0.68, 2.34] 1.15 [0.68, 1.84] 0.97a 0.67 [0.28, 1.58] 0.81 [0.54, 1.20] 0.87a
Fortnightly frequency threshold 0.65 [0.28, 1.50] 0.74 [0.43, 1.31] 0.91a 0.65 [0.21, 2.15] 0.67 [0.45, 1.01] 0.68a
Weekly frequency threshold 1.21 [0.86, 1.66] 1.10 [0.82, 1.47] 0.67a 0.77 [0.49, 1.20] 0.68 [0.50, 0.94] 0.57a
τ 0.37 [0.26, 0.51] 0.37 [0.25, 0.50] 0.46 [0.35, 0.60] 0.55 [0.40, 0.73] 0.53 [0.39, 0.70] 0.59 [0.44, 0.75]
R 2 0.65 [0.29, 0.89] 0.66 [0.31, 0.88] 0.47 [0.00, 0.71] 0.00 [0.00, 0.41] 0.00 [0.00, 0.44] 0.00 [0.00, 0.30]
I 2 0.87 [0.78, 0.93] 0.86 [0.78, 0.93] 0.91 [0.86, 0.95] 0.97 [0.96, 0.99] 0.97 [0.95, 0.99] 0.98 [0.96, 0.99]
  1. Notes: 95% credible intervals are indicated in square brackets. Estimates where the 95% credible interval does not include 1.0 are indicated in boldface, except where coefficients are fixed. a indicates a coefficient that is fixed a priori rather than being estimated from the data. n = 41 for problem gambling and n = 40 for moderate-risk problem gambling. Problem gambling is defined as a PGSI score of 8 or more or a SOGS score of 5 or more. Moderate-risk problem gambling is defined as a PGSI score of 3 – 7 or a SOGS score of 3 – 4. HDI household disposable income, EGM Electronic Gaming Machine, SOGS South Oaks Gambling Screen, PGSI Problem Gambling Severity Index