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Table 4 Association of socio-demographics, CVD a-related knowledge and perception with components of eating habits among participating adolescent school-students of Kolkata (N = 1652)

From: Exercise and eating habits among urban adolescents: a cross-sectional study in Kolkata, India

Socio-demographics, knowledge and perception Meals taken/day (Reference = One/two) Snacks taken/day? (Reference = Three times or less) Skipping meals (Reference = Never) Eating food in the street-shop/restaurant (Reference = Never)
Three More than three Four times More than four times Sometimes Often Sometimes Often
Variables Categories AOR b (95%CI c) p value AOR b (95%CI c) p value AOR b (95%CI c) p value AOR b (95%CI c) p value AOR b (95%CI c) p value AOR b (95%CI c) p value AOR b (95%CI c) p value AOR b (95%CI c) p value
Age in years   1.27(1.08–1.51) 0.004 1.27(1.01–1.59) 0.044 0.90(0.77–1.05) 0.184 0.93(0.71–1.22) 0.616 1.05(0.89–1.23) 0.572 1.11(0.90–1.37) 0.328 1.20(0.90–1.59) 0.206 1.26(0.95–1.69) 0.113
Other socio-demographic factors Gender of student (Reference = Female) Male 1.05(0.79–1.41) 0.739 1.53(1.02–2.30) 0.039 1.61(1.23–2.10) <0.001 1.68(1.04–2.71) 0.034 0.80(0.61–1.04) 0.099 0.62(0.42–0.93) 0.021 1.06(0.68–1.66) 0.790 1.32(0.83–2.10) 0.234
Socio-economic status (Reference = Lower) Middle 1.91(1.24–2.93) 0.003 3.62(1.61–8.10) 0.002 0.86(0.59–1.26) 0.447 0.74(0.41–1.34) 0.314 0.87(0.60–1.28) 0.482 0.77(0.45–1.33) 0.348 0.87(0.45–1.66) 0.667 0.45(0.24–0.85) 0.015
Upper 8.67(5.26–14.29) <0.001 11.90(5.01–28.29) <0.001 0.57(0.37–0.87) 0.010 0.20(0.09–0.49) <0.001 1.29(0.83–2.00) 0.257 1.06(0.56–1.98) 0.862 2.78(1.18–6.53) 0.019 1.04(0.44–2.47) 0.934
Family history of death due to CVD (Reference = No) Yes 0.92(0.65–1.30) 0.624 0.89(0.54–1.48) 0.657 1.06(0.77–1.46) 0.704 1.27(0.75–2.16) 0.374 1.20(0.87–1.66) 0.275 1.16(0.72–1.86) 0.541 0.94(0.56–1.56) 0.802 1.09(0.64–1.84) 0.750
Level of knowledge regarding CVD (Reference = Poor) Average 1.46(1.05–2.01) 0.023 1.42(0.89–2.27) 0.145 0.80(0.60–1.08) 0.146 1.16(0.68–1.98) 0.592 1.10(0.81–1.49) 0.536 1.15(0.74–1.78) 0.538 0.78(0.48–1.28) 0.330 0.67(0.41–1.12) 0.130
Good 1.24(0.86–1.79) 0.245 1.74(1.07–2.84) 0.027 1.04(0.75–1.45) 0.799 1.25(0.68–2.29) 0.477 1.21(0.87–1.70) 0.256 1.02(0.61–1.69) 0.947 0.88(0.50–1.55) 0.658 0.76(0.42–1.36) 0.355
Blood pressure and its abnormalities (Reference = Poor) Average 1.42(1.13–1.80) 0.003 1.53(1.07–2.18) 0.021 0.91(0.72–1.15) 0.421 1.23(0.84–1.79) 0.289 1.14(0.90–1.43) 0.282 1.00(0.71–1.41) 1.000 1.35(0.91–1.99) 0.134 1.29(0.86–1.93) 0.219
Good 1.12(0.71–1.77) 0.627 1.76(1.00–3.11) 0.051 0.94(0.63–1.41) 0.779 0.75(0.33–1.68) 0.482 1.19(0.78–1.80) 0.422 1.14(0.62–2.07) 0.675 0.53(0.28–1.01) 0.053 0.72(0.38–1.37) 0.317
Risk factors for CVD (Reference = Poor) Average 1.51(1.09–2.09) 0.014 1.18(0.73–1.90) 0.509 1.03(0.76–1.39) 0.867 1.26(0.75–2.14) 0.385 1.05(0.77–1.42) 0.780 0.92(0.59–1.42) 0.694 1.63(0.97–2.76) 0.067 2.04(1.19–3.49) 0.009
Good 1.93(1.34–2.78) 0.001 2.17(1.34–3.53) 0.002 1.11(0.80–1.55) 0.530 0.93(0.49–1.76) 0.824 1.00(0.71–1.41) 0.984 0.80(0.48–1.33) 0.388 1.28(0.75–2.16) 0.365 0.95(0.54–1.67) 0.864
Prevention of CVD (Reference = Poor) Average 1.28(0.94–1.75) 0.118 1.41(0.91–2.17) 0.122 1.12(0.84–1.50) 0.430 1.37(0.81–2.31) 0.243 1.15(0.86–1.54) 0.341 0.83(0.54–1.29) 0.417 1.21(0.76–1.93) 0.412 0.91(0.56–1.48) 0.708
Good 1.81(1.20–2.74) 0.005 1.64(0.93–2.89) 0.087 0.95(0.65–1.39) 0.787 1.64(0.85–3.19) 0.142 1.05(0.71–1.54) 0.812 0.93(0.53–1.63) 0.788 2.06(0.96–4.39) 0.062 1.59(0.73–3.48) 0.243
Healthy nutritional habits (Reference = Poor) Average 1.32(0.96–1.82) 0.086 1.18(0.75–1.88) 0.476 1.22(0.91–1.64) 0.189 1.03(0.60–1.78) 0.912 1.13(0.84–1.53) 0.427 0.91(0.58–1.42) 0.671 1.23(0.75–2.01) 0.419 1.22(0.73–2.04) 0.445
Good 1.46(0.99–2.16) 0.058 2.08(1.26–3.43) 0.004 1.55(1.09–2.22) 0.015 1.35(0.71–2.57) 0.355 1.07(0.75–1.53) 0.709 0.85(0.49–1.45) 0.546 1.43(0.76–2.66) 0.266 1.28(0.67–2.45) 0.455
CVD and their prevention (Overall) (Reference = Poor) Average 1.57(1.14–2.15) 0.006 1.14(0.72–1.82) 0.583 0.98(0.73–1.31) 0.888 0.91(0.54–1.54) 0.736 1.20(0.89–1.61) 0.237 1.00(0.65–1.54) 0.998 1.29(0.81–2.07) 0.287 1.08(0.66–1.76) 0.762
Good 2.36(1.57–3.54) <0.001 2.90(1.72–4.88) <0.001 1.29(0.89–1.85) 0.177 1.17(0.60–2.27) 0.652 1.09(0.75–1.58) 0.653 0.74(0.42–1.31) 0.297 1.48(0.77–2.82) 0.239 1.33(0.68–2.60) 0.399
Perception regarding Own body size (Reference = Normal) Underweight 1.03(0.69–1.53) 0.890 0.54(0.28–1.03) 0.063 1.28(0.88–1.85) 0.192 0.92(0.47–1.79) 0.800 0.96(0.66–1.40) 0.827 1.12(0.64–1.94) 0.699 0.94(0.48–1.85) 0.866 1.28(0.65–2.54) 0.472
Overweight 0.63(0.45–0.89) 0.008 0.42(0.25–0.70) 0.001 1.18(0.87–1.61) 0.292 0.93(0.52–1.65) 0.802 0.94(0.68–1.29) 0.688 1.24(0.79–1.96) 0.346 0.45(0.28–0.72) 0.001 0.55(0.33–0.89) 0.016
Future risk of CVDs (Reference = No) Yes 0.93(0.64–1.35) 0.698 1.62(1.02–2.58) 0.042 0.94(0.67–1.32) 0.721 1.16(0.65–2.08) 0.615 1.23(0.87–1.75) 0.249 2.04(1.28–3.25) 0.003 0.88(0.51–1.51) 0.631 1.01(0.57–1.77) 0.978
Own overall health (Reference = Good) Average 0.89(0.66–1.21) 0.470 1.16(0.76–1.76) 0.496 1.19(0.90–1.57) 0.225 1.19(0.72–1.97) 0.498 1.10(0.83–1.46) 0.513 1.21(0.80–1.83) 0.376 1.02(0.63–1.63) 0.945 1.25(0.77–2.03) 0.371
Poor 0.81(0.40–1.63) 0.552 1.05(0.40–2.72) 0.925 1.25(0.65–2.42) 0.503 2.45(0.96–6.23) 0.061 1.57(0.80–3.09) 0.190 1.82(0.74–4.48) 0.195 0.38(0.16–0.90) 0.027 0.54(0.23–1.30) 0.172
  1. a CVD Cardio-vascular diseases
  2. b AOR Adjusted odds ratio (adjusted for: age, gender, socio-economic status and family history)
  3. c CI Confidence interval
  4. Bolfaced figures indicate statistically significant results where p value was <0.05