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Table 2 Least square means for dietary pattern scores (UDP; HDP)a by income levels for each country (site) arranged from highest to lowest HDI

From: Socioeconomic status and dietary patterns in children from around the world: different associations by levels of country human development?

Country (site) 2011 HDI (level) Gini index (Year) Income Level 1 Income Level 2 Income Level 3 Income Level 4 P for linear trendb
UDP scores by country (site)
 Australia (Adelaide) 0.929 (very high) 34.9 (2010) −0.13 (0.10) −0.23 (0.09) −0.33 (0.09) −0.46 (0.10) 0.02
 Canada (Ottawa) 0.908 (very high) 32.6 (2013) −0.23 (0.10) −0.45 (0.09) −0.41 (0.11) −0.52 (0.08) 0.01
 Finland (Helsinki, Espoo and Vantaa) 0.882 (very high) 27.7 (2010) −0.46 (0.10) −0.60 (0.10) −0.62 (0.10) −0.59 (0.08) <.0001
 USA (Baton Rouge) 0.837 (very high) 40.8 (2013) 1.09 (0.11) 1.27 (0.09) 0.56 (0.10) 0.51 (0.11) 0.003
 Portugal (Porto) 0.819 (very high) 35.8 (2010) −0.19 (0.09) −0.29 (0.08) −0.31 (0.08) −0.46 (0.10) 0.31
 United Kingdom (Bath and North East Somerset) 0.744 (very high) 36.0 (2013) −0.14 (0.10) −0.15 (0.09) −0.18 (0.10) −0.23 (0.10) 0.11
 Brazil (Sau Paulo) 0.718 (high) 52.9 (2013) 0.20 (0.09) 0.11 (0.10) 0.05 (0.10) 0.01 (0.11) <.0001
 Colombia (Bogota) 0.710 (high) 55.5 (2010) −0.06 (0.08) −0.13 (0.08) −0.05 (0.09) −0.11 (0.10) 0.005
 China (Tianjin) 0.687 (medium) 42.1 (2010) −0.14 (0.14) −0.19 (0.14) −0.29 (0.13) −0.23 (0.13) 0.001
 South Africa (Cape Town) 0.619 (medium) 63.1 (2013) 1.47 (0.09) 0.99 (0.12) 0.98 (0.13) 0.95 (0.14) 0.74
 India (Bangalore) 0.547 (medium) 33.9 (2009) 0.01 (0.12) −0.07 (0.12) −0.18 (0.12) −0.26 (0.10) 0.44
 Kenya (Nairobi) 0.509 (low) 47.7 (2013) 0.44 (0.10) 0.32 (0.09) 0.05 (0.09) −0.08 (0.09) 0.22
HDP scores by country (site)
 Australia (Adelaide) 0.929 (very high) 34.9 (2010) 0.16 (0.10) 0.14 (0.09) 0.27 (0.10) 0.37 (0.10) 0.0002
 Canada (Ottawa) 0.908 (very high) 32.6 (2013) 0.08 (0.10) 0.50 (0.09) 0.53 (0.12) 0.57 (0.08) 0.004
 Finland (Helsinki, Espoo and Vantaa) 0.882 (very high) 27.7 (2010) −0.13 (0.10) −0.05 (0.11) −0.23 (0.10) −0.17 (0.08) 0.34
 USA (Baton Rouge) 0.837 (very high) 40.8 (2013) −0.12 (0.10) −0.01 (0.08) −0.11 (0.09) −0.24 (0.11) 0.07
 Portugal (Porto) 0.819 (very high) 35.8 (2010) 0.04 (0.09) 0.22 (0.08) 0.17 (0.08) 0.43 (0.09) 0.06
 United Kingdom (Bath and North East Somerset) 0.744 (very high) 36.0 (2013) −0.10 (0.10) −0.10 (0.09) 0.16 (0.10) 0.16 (0.11) 0.27
 Brazil (Sau Paulo) 0.718 (high) 52.9 (2013) −0.46 (0.08) −0.43 (0.10) −0.34 (0.10) −0.33 (0.12) 0.24
 Colombia (Bogota) 0.710 (high) 55.5 (2010) −0.51 (0.07) −0.53 (0.08) −0.45 (0.09) −0.31 (0.09) 0.006
 China (Tianjin) 0.687 (medium) 42.1 (2010) −0.11 (0.12) 0.13 (0.12) 0.07 (0.11) 0.16 (0.11) 0.98
 South Africa (Cape Town) 0.619 (medium) 63.1 (2013) 0.22 (0.09) 0.20 (0.11) 0.40 (0.12) 0.15 (0.16) 0.04
 India (Bangalore) 0.547 (medium) 33.9 (2009) −0.21 (0.11) −0.10 (0.11) −0.15 (0.12) 0.14 (0.09) 0.01
 Kenya (Nairobi) 0.509 (low) 47.7 (2013) 0.23 (0.10) 0.25 (0.09) 0.12 (0.09) 0.44 (0.09) 0.45
  1. Abbreviations: UDP unhealthy dietary pattern, HDP healthy dietary pattern
  2. aLeast square means for estimates of dietary patterns for each study site
  3. bTest for linear trend across four income levels