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Table 4 Comparison of baseline child and parental characteristics of children who remained uninsured vs. those obtaining health insurance at one-year follow-up (N = 237)

From: The health and healthcare impact of providing insurance coverage to uninsured children: A prospective observational study

Characteristic Mean or % At Baseline
Uninsured (N = 41) Insured (N = 196) P
Mean age of child, years (range) 9.4 (1–18) 6.9 (1–18) <.01
Child born in US 90% 98% <.01
Mean months without insurance (range) 21.2 (2–108) 12.7 (1–132) .02
Median months without insurance (IPR95 a) 15 (1, 108) 6 (1, 108) .02
Child has special-care needs 71% 56% .08
Gender of child    .12
 Male 61% 47%  
 Female 39% 53%  
Type of insurance that uninsured child had in past    .12
 Medicaid 73% 76%  
 CHIP 16% 12%  
 Private 8% 12%  
 Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Socialb 3% 0%  
Race/ethnicity of primary caregiver    .13
 Latino 66% 64%  
 African-American 32% 34%  
 White 2% 2%  
Primary caregiver’s relationship to child    .17
 Mother 85% 92%  
 Father 2% 4%  
 Other 12% 5%  
Child ever had health insurance before 90% 95% .19
Primary caregiver has health insurance 35% 25% .20
Mean combined annual family income, (range) $24,078
($42,00, $56,000)
$21,648
($0, $64,000)
.24
Gender of primary caregiver    .28
 Male 7% 4%  
 Female 93% 96%  
Primary caregiver has limited English proficiency 54% 45% .33
Primary caregiver born in US 41% 49% .35
Marital status of primary caregiver    .46
 Married, living with spouse 46% 34%  
 Single 15% 22%  
 Married, separated from spouse 17% 14%  
 Living with partner 2% 10%  
 Common-law marriage 7% 9%  
 Divorced 7% 9%  
 Widowed 6% 2%  
Primary caregiver’s health status    .55
 Excellent 10% 17%  
 Very good 16% 24%  
 Good 42% 38%  
 Fair 26% 17%  
 Poor 6% 4%  
Primary caregiver aware that child is eligible for Medicaid or CHIP 49% 53% .77
Number of children in household    .81
 1 32% 28%  
 2 27% 36%  
  ≥ 3 41% 36%  
Primary caregiver’s educational attainment    .90
 Not high-school graduate 63% 64%  
 High-school graduate or at least some college 37% 36%  
Race/ethnicity of child    .94
 Latino 66% 65%  
 African-American 34% 35%  
Number of adults in household    .94
 1 27% 31%  
 2 46% 40%  
  ≥ 3 27% 29%  
Primary caregiver unemployed 58% 54% .95
Type of insurance that primary caregiver hasc    .95
 Private 55% 40%  
 Public 45% 54%  
 Other 0% 6%  
  1. aIPR95 denotes inner 95th percentile range
  2. bPublic health insurance in Mexico
  3. cAmong caregivers who have health insurance