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Table 3 Associations between harsh physical punishment in childhood and child maltreatment

From: The relationships between harsh physical punishment and child maltreatment in childhood and intimate partner violence in adulthood

  AOR (95% CI)
Emotional abuse model Sexual abuse model Physical neglect model Emotional neglect model Physical abuse model Exposure to IPV model Any child maltreatment model
Harsh physical punishment 7.6 (6.6, 8.9)*** 1.7 (1.5, 1.9)*** 1.8 (1.6, 2.0)*** 1.6 (1.3, 1.8)*** 26.6 (21.6, 32.6)*** 2.6 (2.2, 3.0)*** 7.0 (6.4, 7.5)***
Sex 1.0 (0.9, 1.2) 3.3 (3.0, 3.7)*** 0.7 (0.6, 0.7)*** 1.2 (1.0, 1.3)* 0.9 (0.8, 1.0) 1.3 (1.1, 1.5)*** 1.0 (1.0, 1.1)
Age 1.00 (1.0, 1.0)*** 1.0 (1.0, 1.0)*** 1.0 (1.0, 1.0) 1.0 (1.0, 1.0)*** 1.0 (1.0, 1.0) 1.0 (1.0, 1.0)* 1.0 (1.0, 1.0)**
Marital status
 Widowed/divorced/separated 1.3 (1.1, 1.6)** 1.2 (1.1, 1.4)** 1.0 (0.9, 1.1) 1.1 (1.0, 1.3) 1.1 (0.9, 1.2) 0.9 (0.8, 1.0) 1.1 (1.0, 1.2)**
 Never Married 1.2 (1.0, 1.5) 1.0 (0.9, 1.2) 1.1 (1.0, 1.2) 0.9 (0.7, 1.0)* 0.6 (0.5, 0.8)*** 0.7 (0.6, 0.8)*** 0.9 (0.8, 1.0)*
Race/Ethnicity
 Black, Non, Hispanic 0.8 (0.7, 1.0) 1.1 (1.0, 1.3) 1.0 (0.9, 1.1) 0.7 (0.5, 0.8)*** 1.7 (1.4, 2.1)*** 1.7 (1.5, 1.9)*** 1.1 (1.0, 1.3)*
 American Indian/Alaska Native 0.8 (0.5, 1.3) 1.4 (1.0, 1.9)* 1.1 (0.9, 1.4) 1.0 (0.7, 1.3) 1.1 (0.8, 1.7) 1.4 (0.9, 2.0) 1.2 (1.0, 1.5)
 Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander 0.7 (0.5, 1.2) 0.5 (0.4, 0.7)*** 1.7 (1.4, 2.1)*** 1.2 (0.8, 1.7) 1.1 (0.7, 1.8) 1.7 (1.2, 2.3)** 1.4 (1.2, 1.7)***
 Hispanic 0.6 (0.5, 0.7)*** 0.9 (0.8, 1.1) 1.4 (1.2, 1.6)*** 1.3 (1.1, 1.5)** 1.1 (0.9, 1.4) 1.4 (1.2, 1.6)*** 1.3 (1.1, 1.5)***
Education
 High school or equivalent 1.1 (0.8, 1.3) 1.2 (1.0, 1.4) 0.9 (0.8, 1.00)* 0.8 (0.7, 0.9)** 0.9 (0.8, 1.2) 0.9 (0.7, 1.1) 0.8 (0.7, 0.9)***
 Some college or higher 1.2 (0.9, 1.5) 1.4 (1.1, 1.6)*** 1.0 (0.9, 1.2) 0.6 (0.5, 0.7)*** 0.8 (0.7, 1.1) 0.7 (0.6, 0.8)*** 0.8 (0.8, 0.9)**
Household income
 $20,000, $39,999 0.8 (0.7, 1.0) 1.0 (0.9, 1.2) 0.9 (0.8, 1.0)* 0.8 (0.7, 0.9)** 0.9 (0.7, 1.1) 1.0 (0.9, 1.2) 0.9 (0.8, 0.9)**
 $40,000, $59,999 0.9 (0.7, 1.1) 0.9 (0.8, 1.1) 0.9 (0.8, 1.0)* 0.8 (0.7, 1.0)* 0.9 (0.7, 1.1) 0.9 (0.8, 1.1) 0.8 (0.7, 0.9)***
 $60,000+ 0.9 (0.7, 1.1) 0.9 (0.8, 1.1) 0.9 (0.8, 1.0)* 0.6 (0.5, 0.7)*** 0.8 (0.6, 0.9)* 0.8 (0.7, 1.0)* 0.7 (0.7, 0.8)***
Any family history of dysfunction 1.6 (1.4, 1.9)*** 1.8 (1.6, 2.0)*** 1.9 (1.7, 2.0)*** 1.5 (1.4, 1.7)*** 1.2 (1.0, 1.4)* 5.3 (4.7, 6.1)*** 3.3 (3.0, 3.5)***
Sexual abuse 1.9 (1.6, 2.2)*** N/A 2.0 (1.8, 2.3)*** 1.4 (1.3, 1.6)*** 1.6 (1.4, 2.0)*** 1.7 (1.5, 2.0)*** N/A
Physical neglect 2.1 (1.8, 2.4)*** 2.0 (1.8, 2.3)*** N/A 2.2 (1.9, 2.4)*** 1.9 (1.6, 2.2)*** 2.3 (2.02.6)*** N/A
Emotional neglect 3.0 (2.6, 3.5)*** 1.4 (1.2, 1.6)*** 2.1 (1.9, 2.4)*** N/A 1.7 (1.5, 2.0)*** 1.3 (1.1, 1.5)*** N/A
Emotional abuse N/A 1.7 (1.4, 2.0)*** 2.0 (1.7, 2.3)*** 2.9 (2.5, 3.4)*** 4.3 (3.6, 5.1)*** 1.9 (1.5, 2.3)*** N/A
Physical abuse 4.0 (3.4, 4.8)*** 1.4 (1.3, 1.6)** 1.8 (1.5, 2.0)*** 1.5 (1.3, 1.8)*** N/A 1.8 (1.5, 2.1)*** N/A
Exposure to IPV 1.9 (1.6, 2.3)*** 1.7 (1.5, 1.9)*** 2.2 (2.0, 2.5)*** 1.3 (1.1, 1.5)** 2.1 (1.8, 2.5)*** N/A N/A
  1. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR). Adjusted for sex, age, marital status, race/ethnicity, education, and household income, any family history of dysfunction, and each other type of childhood maltreatment. Sex reference group was males. Marital status reference group is married/co-habiting. Race/ethnicity reference group is White, non-Hispanic. Education reference group is less than high school. Household income reference group is $0–$19,999. *p ≤ .05, **p ≤ .01, ***p ≤ .001