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Table 2 The socio-behavioural, clinical and HIV-related factors associated with abnormal anal cytology

From: Prevalence of anogenital HPV infection, related disease and risk factors among HIV-infected men in inner-city Johannesburg, South Africa: baseline findings from a cohort study

Characteristic Abnormal anal cytology
N = 118
n (%) or mean (SD)
M 1 (Crude)
OR (95% CI)
p-value M 2a
aOR (95%CI)
p-value
Born in SA 84 (72) 1.38 (0.80–2.37) 0.25 1.38 (0.79–2.38) 0.25
Single 85 (72) 1.76 (0.98–3.00) 0.06 1.76 (1.00–3.11) 0.05
Employed 83 (70) 0.86 (0.49–1.51) 0.60 0.86 (0.48–1.55) 0.62
Currently smokes 35 (30) 1.06 (0.61–1.85) 0.84 1.06 (0.61–1.85) 0.84
Currently drinks alcohol 63 (53) 1.23 (0.74–2.03) 0.43 1.23 (0.74–2.05) 0.42
Age at sexual debut 18 (3) 1.02 (0.94–1.10) 0.70 1.02 (0.94–1.10) 0.70
Ever had sex with men 8 (5) 1.60 (0.44–5.80) 0.48 1.60 (0.44–5.86) 0.47
> 1 sexual partner in past 3 months 25 (21) 0.90 (0.49–1.67) 0.75 0.90 (0.49–1.67) 0.74
Consistent condom use with recent partner 77 (65) 1.87 (0.86–4.08) 0.12 1.86 (0.86–4.12) 0.12
Anogenital warts present 10 (8) 0.67 (0.29–1.55) 0.34 0.67 (0.29–1.55) 0.35
On ART 88 (75) 2.08 (1.20–3.59) 0.009 2.26 (1.26–4.09) 0.007
Duration on ART (months)
  > 12 68 (58) 1   1  
 6–12 16 (14) 1.13 (0.49–2.65) 0.77 1.01 (0.43–2.41) 0.97
  < 6 3 (3) 0.47 (0.11–2.04) 0.31 0.41 (0.09–1.82) 0.24
CD4+ count (cells/μL)
  > 500 37 (31) 1   1  
 351–500 41 (35) 1.65 (0.88–3.08) 0.12 1.65 (0.88–3.09) 0.12
 200–350 21 (18) 1.03 (0.51–2.09) 0.94 1.03 (0.50–2.09) 0.94
  < 200 12 (10) 2.27 (0.81–6.32) 0.12 2.26 (0.81–6.32) 0.12
Undetectable PVL (<40 copies/ml) 51 (43) 0.64 (0.38–1.10) 0.10 0.63 (0.36–1.09) 0.09
Controlled HIV diseaseb 33 (28) 1.38 (0.77–2.48) 0.28 1.35 (0.81–2.36) 0.30
  1. Abnormal cytology included ASCUS and LSIL. M2a: Adjusted for age. b: On ART for >6 months, CD4+ > 350 and undetectable PVL