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Table 3 Factors associated with heavy episodic drinking in men and current alcohol use among women in inner-city Johannesburg

From: Alcohol use and sexual risk behaviour among men and women in inner-city Johannesburg, South Africa

  Male heavy episodic drinking (n = 141) Female current drinkers (n = 124)
  Number Row % P Number Row % P
Age group (years)
 18–24 32 6.2 <0.001a 33 9.2 0.03a
 25–34 77 12.1 59 14.1
  ≥ 35 32 15.6 32 15.1
Place of birth
 Gauteng 0 0.0 0.70 10 22.2 <0.001
 KwaZulu Natal 131 10.3 73 9.8
 Other provinces 8 12.3 40 21.4
 Outside South Africa 0 0.0 0 0.0
Completed secondary school
 No 99 10.9 0.36 115 15.0 <0.001
 Yes 41 9.3 9 4.0
Married
 No 119 10.2 0.71 117 12.7 0.48
 Yes 21 11.1 7 9.9
Has children
 No 38 7.6 0.01 19 11.4 0.65
 Yes 102 12.0 105 12.7
Employed       
 No 65 8.6 0.03 98 13.0 0.42
 Yes 74 12.3 26 11.0
Income per month (USD)
 0–9 38 6.1   74 12.8  
 10–99 33 15.7 <0.001a 32 13.0 0.76a
 100–199 23 13.9 11 10.4
  ≥ 200 47 13.2 7 13.2
Perceived social cohesion
 Very close 79 10.9 0.39a 48 12.6 0.96a
 Close 50 9.0 60 12.6
 Indifferent/not close 11 12.8 16 12.8
Perceived safety       
 Safe or very safe 25 8.1 0.16a 29 9.8 0.22a
 Unsafe 63 10.0 64 14.1
 Very unsafe 51 12.4 31 13.1
Witnessed violence in past 3 months
 No 90 9.1 0.02 94 11.8 0.09
 Yes 50 13.4 30 16.4
Ever had HIV test     
 No 18 13.1 0.23 38 9.4 0.01
 Yes 121 9.9 86 14.9
Perceived risk of acquiring HIV
 No risk at all 44 7.4 <0.001a 35 12.9 0.87a
 Some risk 60 10.5 53 12.2
 High risk 35 19.6 35 12.4
Current smoker
 No 40 5.5 <0.001 82 8.9 <0.001
 Yes 100 16.1 40 63.5
Health status     
 Very good 31 12.4 0.46a 19 9.0 0.004a
 Good or fair 88 9.7 68 11.8
 Poor 22 10.6 37 18.7
STI symptoms in past 6 months
 No 110 10.1 0.58 44 9.8 0.016
 Yes 31 11.2 80 14.8
  1. 1 USD = 6 South Africa Rand. Row percentages are presented, which in men is the proportion of each subgroup who had been drunk in the past week, and in women is the proportion who currently drink in each subgroup. STI sexually transmitted infection. aChi-square test for trend (the remainder are chi-square tests). Totals vary due to missing data