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Table 3 Proportion of women attending antenatal care in each facility, by maternal characteristics and birth outcomes in worst case scenario (women with unknown attendance classified as not having attended ANC)

From: Attendance at antenatal clinics in inner-city Johannesburg, South Africa and its associations with birth outcomes: analysis of data from birth registers at three facilities

Variable Primary care clinic P Secondary level hospital P Tertiary hospital P
% attended (n/N) % attended (n/N) % attended (n/N)
ANC attendance for facility 77.1 (5813/7543)   89.0 (3661/4113)   93.1 (18,177/19,523)  
Maternal age (years)
 10–16 75.0 (66/88) 0.01$ - - 91.0 (229/252) <0.001$
 17–19 74.1 (542/731) 91.0 (1114/1224)
 20–24 75.9 (2197/2894) 91.7 (4726/5154)
 25–29 79.0 (1797/2275) 93.6 (5674/6065)
 30–34 78.0 (844/1082) 94.1 (3814/4051)
  ≥ 35 77.6 (367/473) 94.3 (2620/2777)
Parityb
 1 - - - - 93.4 (6046/6461) 0.85$
 2–4 93.4 (4642/4966)
  ≥ 5 93.9 (448/477)
Gravidityb
 1 - - - - 92.0 (5252/5708) <0.001$
 2–4 93.4 (11,761/12,581)
  ≥ 5 94.3 (1040/1093)
Had HIV test
 Yes 97.2 (5023/5167) <0.001 92.6 (3353/3621) <0.001 95.1 (17,380/18,276) <0.001
 No 33.3 (790/2376) 62.6 (308/492) 63.9 (797/1247)
HIV statusa
 Positive 95.0 (1803/1897) <0.001 92.0 (798/867) 0.47 95.0 (5180/5452) 0.72
 Negative 98.5 (3220/3270) 92.8 (2555/2754) 95.1 (12,200/12,824)
Delivery mode
 Vaginal delivery 77.1 (5813/7543) - 87.6 (2741/3129) <0.001 90.6 (7924/8744) <0.001
 Caesarean section NA 93.5 (920/984) 96.5 (9946/10,304)
Infant sex
 Female 77.7 (2976/3833) 0.28 88.4 (1795/2031) 0.19 94.0 (8115/8636) 0.24
 Male 76.6 (2824/3687) 89.7 (1864/2079) 93.5 (8434/9017)
Gestation at birth
 Preterm 57.7 (15/26) 0.02 80.9 (38/47) 0.20 88.8 (4551/5125) <0.001
 Term 77.1 (5798/7517) 89.1 (3616//4058) 94.8 (12,318/12,989)
 Post-term - 87.5 (7/8) 95.4 (866/908)
Infant status at birth
 Alive 77.2 (5799/7510) <0.001 89.1 (3647/4093) 0.32 94.1 (16,367/17,401) <0.001
 Stillbirthb 40.6 (13/32) 81.3 (13/16) 83.2 (405/487)
  1. At HCHC, no births were considered post-term. Worst case scenario is the number of women who attended ANC among all women
  2. NA not applicable as caesarean sections not done at HCHC
  3. –Data not collected in labour ward registers
  4. $Chi-square test for trend
  5. aHIV status among women with a known status
  6. bIncludes death shortly after birth.