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Table 1 Maternal characteristics, antenatal clinic attendance and birth outcomes at a primary, secondary and tertiary level facility in inner-city Johannesburg, South Africa

From: Attendance at antenatal clinics in inner-city Johannesburg, South Africa and its associations with birth outcomes: analysis of data from birth registers at three facilities

Variable Primary care clinic (HCHC) Secondary level hospital (SRH) Tertiary hospital (CMJAH) P
% (n/N) % (n/N) % (n/N)
Maternal age (years)
 10–16 1.2 (88/7543) - 1.3 (252/19,523) <0.001
 17–19 9.7 (731/7543) 6.3 (1224/19,523)
 20–24 38.3 (2894/7543) 26.4 (5154/19,523)
 25–29 30.2 (2275/7543) 31.1 (6065/19,523)
 30–34 14.3 (1082/7543) 20.7 (4051/19,523)
  ≥ 35 6.3 (473/7543) 14.2 (2777/19,523)
Parity
 1 - - 55.9 (6461/11,554) -
 2–4 40.0 (4616/11,554)
  ≥ 5 4.1 (477/11,554)
Gravidity
 1 - - 30.3 (5708/19,382) -
 2–4 54.3 (10,664/19,382)
  ≥ 5 15.4 (3010/19,382)
Attendance at ANCb
 Worst case scenarioa 77.1 (5813/7543) 89.0 (3661/4113) 93.1 (18,177/19,523) <0.001
 Missing are excludedb 77.1 (5813/7541) 99.1 (3661/3693) 97.0 (18,177/18,745) <0.001
 Best case scenarioc 77.1 (5813/7543 99.2 (4081/4113) 97.1 (18,955/19,523) <0.001
Had an HIV test 68.5 (5167/7543) 88.0 (3621/4113) 93.6 (18,276/19,523) <0.001
HIV positived 36.7 (1897/5167) 23.9 (867/3621) 29.8 (5452/18,276) <0.001
Caesarean section rate NA 24.0 (984/4102) 54.1 (10,304/19,048) <0.001
Infant sex
 Female 51.0 (3833/7520) 49.4 (2031/4110) 48.9 (8636/17,653) 0.01
 Male 49.0 (3687/7520) 50.6 (2079/4110) 51.1% (9017/17,653)
Gestation at birth
 Preterm 0.3 (26/7543) 1.1 (47/4113) 26.9 (5125/19,022) <0.001
 Term 99.7 (7517/7543) 98.7 (4058/4113) 68.3 (12,989/19,022)
 Post-term 0 (0/7543) 0.2 (8/4113) 4.8 (908/19,022)
Stillbirthe (n deaths per 1000 live births) 4.3/1000 (32/7510) 3.9/1000 (16/4093) 28.0/1000 (487/17,401) <0.001
  1. NA not applicable as caesarean sections not done at HCHC.
  2. –Data not collected in labour ward registers
  3. aWorst case scenario: number of women who attended ANC among all women (women with unknown attendance classified as not having attended ANC)
  4. bMissing excluded: number of women known to have attended ANC, among those whose ANC attendance status was known (women with unknown ANC attendance are excluded)
  5. cBest case scenario: women with unknown attendance classified as having attended ANC
  6. dHIV status among women with a known status
  7. eIncludes death shortly after birth