Skip to main content

Table 1 Descriptive Characteristics of Mothers by Household Food Insecurity Status in Beirut, Lebanon, 2015 (n = 378)

From: Household food insecurity is associated with a higher burden of obesity and risk of dietary inadequacies among mothers in Beirut, Lebanon

  Total Sample (n = 378) Food Secure
(n = 187)
Food Insecure
(n = 191)
Crude ORa
(95% CI)
Adjusted ORb
(95% CI)
Socio-demographic Characteristics
  Mean ± SD OR (95% CI)
 Number of Children 2.7 ± 1.1 2.7 ± 1.0 2.8 ± 1.2 1.09 (0.92, 1.31) 0.90 (0.70, 1.16)
 Mother’s age (years) 39.7 ± 7.7 39.2 ± 7.5 40.3 ± 7.9 1.02 (0.99, 1.05) 1.03 (0.99,1.06)
  N (%)  
Household Monthly Income (L.L)c
  < 1,000,000 (reference) 119 (31.5) 21 (11.5) 98 (52.4) 1.0 1.0
 1,000,000–2000,000 146 (38.6) 73 (39.9) 73 (39.0) 0.21 (0.12, 0.38) 0.27 (0.15, 0.51)
  > 2000–0000 105 (28.4) 89 (48.6) 16 (8.6) 0.04 (0.02, 0.08) 0.07 (0.03, 0.15)
p-for-trend     <0.001 <0.001
Crowding Index
  < 2 person per room (reference) 330 (87.3) 175 (93.6) 155 (81.2) 1.0 1.0
  > = 2 person per room 48 (12.7) 12 (6.4) 36 (18.8) 3.39 (1.70, 6.74) 2.18 (0.89, 5.32)
p-for-trend     <0.001  
Spouse’s Employment Status
 Unemployed (reference) 14 (3.8) 2 (1.1) 12 (6.6) 1.0 1.0
 Employee/Self-employed 350 (96.2) 181 (98.9) 169 (93.4) 0.16 (0.03, 0.71) 0.33 (0.06, 1.67)
p-for-trend     <0.01  
Mother’s Employment Status
 Unemployed/ Homemaker (reference) 267 (70.8) 113 (60.8) 154 (80.6) 1.0 1.0
 Employee/ Self-employed 110 (29.2) 73 (39.2) 37 (19.4) 0.37 (0.23, 0.59) 0.80 (0.43, 1.49)
p-for-trend     <0.001  
Spouse’s Education Level
 Intermediate school or less (reference) 188 (49.7) 66 (35.9) 122 (66.7) 1.0 1.0
 High school or technical diploma 105 (27.8) 64 (34.8) 41 (22.4) 0.35 (0.22, 0.57) 0.60 (0.32, 1.11)
 University degree 74 (19.6) 54 (29.3) 20 (10.9) 0.20 (0.11, 0.36) 0.92 (0.42, 2.04)
p-for-trend     <0.001  
Mother’s Education Level
 Intermediate school or less (reference) 161 (42.6) 50 (26.7) 111 (58.1) 1.0 1.0
 High school or technical diploma 128 (33.9) 68 (36.4) 60 (31.4) 0.40 (0.25, 0.64) 0.76 (0.42, 1.40)
 University degree 89 (23.5) 69 (36.9) 21 (10.5) 0.13 (0.07, 0.24) 0.35 (0.16, 0.75)
p-for-trend     <0.001 <0.01
  1. P-values for entries that were in boldface and significant were added for binary variables including crowding index, spouse's employment status, and mother's employment status
  2. -Odds Ratio is significant at a p-value < 0.05.
  3. a Crude OR refers to unadjusted odds ratio of food insecurity among study sample
  4. b Adjusted OR refers to odds ratio of food insecurity after adjusting for all other socio-demographic variables
  5. c Currency rate: 1$ = 1500 L,L