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Table 2 Cross-sectional studies on social relationships and mental health and/or wellbeing in disability

From: Social relationships, mental health and wellbeing in physical disability: a systematic review

First author, year, reference Country Social relationship measures Mental health/wellbeing measures Quality rating Participant characteristics Key findings a
N Mean age % males Disability
Social support
 Abraido-Lanza 2004 [33] USA Social support SSQS Psychological wellbeing PANAS, Depression CES-D Medium 98 50.6 0.0 Rheumatic disease Emotional support / Wellbeing +
Instrumental support / Depression -
 Agar 2006 [66] UK Social support SSQ-6 PTSD IES, PDS Medium 50 38.9 86.0 Spinal cord injury b
 Bambara 2011 [54] USA Social support, positive interaction MOS SSS Depression PHQ-9 High 451 55.1 86.4 Multiple sclerosis Perceived social support / Depression -
 Bamer 2008 [39] USA Social support MOS SSS Depression CES-D High 530 54.2 25.0 Multiple sclerosis Lack of social support / Depression +
 Beedie 2002 [55] UK Social support SSQ-6 Depression BDI,
Suicidal ideation, hopelessness, BHI
Medium 100 30.0 79.2–85.7 Spinal cord injury Satisfaction social support / Depression -
Satisfaction social support / Hopelessness -
 Cheng 2008 [29] China Social support SSRS Depression HAMD Medium 121 65.2 69.4 Parkinson’s disease Received social support / Depression -
 Coty 2010 [37] USA Social support STMSSC Problematic support Life satisfaction SWLS, Depression CES-D,
Negative affect PANAS
Low 73 57.0 0.0 Rheumatoid arthritis Negative social support / Depression +
Negative social support / Negative affect +
Negative social support / Life satisfaction (−)
Unavailability social support / Depression +
Unavailability social support / Negative affect +
Unavailability social support / Life satisfaction (−)
 Danner 2000 [40] USA Social support PSSS PTSD SCID, CAPS, IES Medium 124 48.8 100.0 Spinal cord injury Family social support / PTSD (+)
Family social support / IES (−)
Friends social support / PTSD -
Friends social support / IES (−)
 Dirik 2009 [43] Turkey Social support MSPSS Depression, anxiety HADS Low 117 48.5 15.4 Rheumatoid arthritis Perceived social support / Anxiety (−)
Perceived social support / Depression (−)
 Dodd 2015 [44] USA Social support SPS Depression PHQ-9 Medium 106 43.8 64.2 Spinal cord injury Social support / Depression (+)
 Dwyer 1997 [94] USA Social support ISEL Affective distress AIMS Low 185 43.0 0.0 Rheumatoid arthritis Social support / Affective distress +
 Fyrand 1997 [61] Norway Social support, social companionship SSQT Anxiety, depression GHQ Low 138 55.0 0.0 Rheumatoid arthritis Social support / Depression (−)
Social companionship / Depression -
Social support / Anxiety 0
Social companionship / Anxiety 0
 Gay 2010 [56] France Social support SSQ-6 Depression ADS,
Anxiety STAI
Medium 115 47.2 31.3 Multiple sclerosis Satisfaction with social support / Depression -
 Geuskens 2006 [67] Netherlands Social support ISS Mental health SF-36 High 359 49.9 27.4 Inflammatory joint complaints Social support / Mental health +
 Gottlieb 2001 [73] Israel Social support Tel-Aviv SSI Life satisfaction LSI Low 100 73.0 59.0 Stroke Social support / Life satisfaction +
 Hampton 2008 [74] China Social support PSSS Subjective wellbeing IPW High 119 25.0 61.0 Spinal cord injury Perceived social support / Affective wellbeing +
 Hatcher 2009 [48] UK Social support PSSS PTSD IES, PANAS, PTCI Medium 102 45.7 81.4 Spinal cord injury b
 Hilari 2006 [49] UK Social support MOS SSS HRQoL SAQOL-39 Medium 83 61.6 92.7 Stroke b
 Huang [46] Taiwan Social support Modified social support inventory Depression BDI High 135 43.3 83.0 Spinal cord injury Social support / Depression 0
 Jaracz 2010 [50] Poland Social support SPS Mental health MSQOL-54 Medium 210 37.4 28.6 Multiple sclerosis b
 Jensen 2014 [42] USA Social support MSPSS Depression PHQ-9 Medium 1416 52.6 41.0 Multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, muscular dystrophy Family social support / Depression (−)
Friends social support / Depression -
Significant other social support / Depression (−)
 Kim 1999 [51] Canada Social support SSIPAD Quality of life QLI-Stroke version High 50 75.0 58.0 Stroke b
 King 1996 [100] USA Social support SSE Quality of life QLI Medium 86 63.3 65.0 Stroke Perceived social support / Quality of life +
 Kivisild 2014 [52] Estonia Social support SSQ Mental health RAND-36 Medium 80 38.9 82.5 Spinal cord injury b
 Kool 2013 [68] Netherlands and Belgium Social support MOS SSS, Mental health SF-36 Medium 1455 46.2 14.0 Rheumatic disease Perceived social support / Mental health +
 Kraaimaat 1995 [65] Netherlands Social support IRGL Depression, anxiety IRGL Medium 229 58.6 42.4 Rheumatoid arthritis MEN
Social support / Anxiety (−)
Social support / Depression (−)
WOMEN
Social support / Anxiety -
Social support / Depression (−)
 Krokavcova 2008 [41] Slovakia Social support PSSS Mental health SF-36 Medium 207 38.4 33.8 Multiple sclerosis Family social support / Mental health +
Friends social support / Mental health +
Significant other social support / Mental health (+)
 Lewin 2013 [57] Germany Social support F-SozU Depression GDS Low 96 67.1 52.0 Stroke Perceived social support / Depression -
 Müller 2015 [63] Switzerland Social support SSQ 6 Depression HADS
Quality of life WHOQoL BREF
High 503 54.6 71.8 Spinal cord injury Social support / Depression (−)
Social support / Quality of life +
 Osborne 2007 [69] USA Social support MSPSS Mental health SF-36 Medium 125 50.8 24.8 Multiple sclerosis Social support / Mental health +
 Phillips 2009 [58] USA Social support PRQ2000 Depression CES-D Low 118 53.26 FM 45.53 MS 0.0 Multiple sclerosis, fibromyalgia Social support / Depression -
 Pitsilka 2015 [76] Greece Social Support QSSS Quality of Life RaQoL High 127 60.7 16.5 Rheumatoid arthritis Social support / Quality of life +
 Raichle 2007 [70] USA Social support MSPSS WHYMPI Mental health SF-36 Medium 157 48.5 72.4 Spinal cord injury Perceived social support / Mental health +
 Riemsma 2000 [38] Netherlands Social support SSL Problematic support Depression AIMS 2 Low 229 62.7 39.0 Rheumatoid arthritis Social support / Depression -
Problematic social support / Depression +
 Rintala 2005 [64] USA Social support SF-ISEL Depression CES-D,
Anxiety STAI,
Life satisfaction SWLS, RAND-36
Low 165 55.0 100.0 Spinal cord injury Social support / Anxiety (−)
Social support / Depression (−)
Social support / Life satisfaction +
 Ritvo 1996 [71] Canada Social support SF-ISEL Mental health MHI Medium 130 41.86 13.0 Multiple sclerosis Social support / Mental health +
 Schwartz 2005 [72] Israel Social support MOS SSS Mental health QoL MSQLI Low 82 45.1 79.0 Multiple sclerosis Perceived social support / Mental health +
 Shao 2014 [47] China Social support SSQT Subjective wellbeing SWS Medium 214 70.3 59.8 Stroke Social support / Subjective wellbeing 0
 Stroud 2006 [45] USA Social support SSQ-6 Depression CES-D Medium 70 46.0 64.0 Spinal cord injury Number social support / Depression (−)
Satisfaction social support / Depression (−)
 Stuifbergen 2009 [101] USA Social support PRQ Quality of life QLI Medium 442 55.9 16.0 Multiple sclerosis Perceived social support / Quality of life +
 Suh 2012 [59] USA Social support SPS Depression HADS Medium 218 43.5 10.0 Relapse remitting multiple sclerosis Social support / Depression -
 Suurmeijer 2005 [34] Netherlands Social support, social companionship SSQT Anxiety, depression GHQ-28 Medium 280 53.4 36.0 Rheumatoid arthritis Informational social support / Anxiety –
Social companionship / Depression -
 Treharne 2005 [53] UK Social support MOS SSS Depression, anxiety HADS,
Life satisfaction QoLS
Medium 154 56.3 27.0 Rheumatoid arthritis b
 Wu 2007 [102] China Social support PSSS Depression CES-D Low 204 44.23 55.4 Physically disabled Perceived social support / Depression -
 Zhang 2011 [30] China Social support SSRS Depression GDS Medium 81 >60 56.0 Stroke b
Social network
 Berkanovic 1996 [87] USA Social network LSNS Depression HAQ Low 118 51.7 25.0 Rheumatoid arthritis Social network / Depression -
 Kraaimaat 1995 [65] Netherlands Social network IRGL Depression, anxiety IRGL Medium 229 58.6 42.4 Rheumatoid arthritis MEN
Social network / Anxiety (−)
Social network / Depression -
WOMEN
Social network / Anxiety 0
Social network / Depression 0
 Nicassio 2011 [88] USA Social network SNI Mental health SF-36 High 106 56.2 17.0 Rheumatoid arthritis Social network / Mental health 0
 Pitsilka 2015 [76] Greece Social network SNI QoL RaQoL High 127 60.7 16.5 Rheumatoid arthritis Social network / Quality of life 0
Family functioning
 Bellin 2010 [89] USA Satisfaction with family functioning The Family APGAR Depression, anxiety HSCL-25 High 61 21.0 39.3 Spina bifida Satisfaction family functioning / Depression –
Satisfaction family functioning / Hopelessness (−)
 Coty 2010 [37] USA Family functioning FRI Life satisfaction SWLS, Depression CES-D,
Negative affect PANAS
Low 73 57.0 0.0 Rheumatoid arthritis Family functioning / Depression –
Family functioning / Negative affect –
Family functioning / Life satisfaction +
Negative social interactions
 Kool 2013 [68] Netherlands and Belgium Negative responses III Depression BDI,
Mental health SF-36
Medium 1455 46.2 14.0 Rheumatic disease Discounting / Mental health –
Lack of understanding / Mental health –
 Kraaimaat 1995 [65] Netherlands Reaction of spouse IRGL Depression, anxiety IRGL Medium 229 58.6 42.4 Rheumatoid arthritis MEN
Criticism / Anxiety +
Criticism / Depression (+)
Distraction / Anxiety (+)
Distraction / Depression (+)
WOMEN
Criticism / Anxiety +
Criticism / Depression +
Distraction / Anxiety (+)
Distraction / Depression (+)
 Stroud 2006 [45] USA Partner response to pain MPI Depression CES-D Medium 70 46.0 64.0 Spinal cord injury Negative partner response to pain / Depression +
Relationship quality
 McPheters 2010 [90] USA Partner relationship quality DAS Depression CES-D, PHQ-9 Medium 54 53.2 20.0 Multiple sclerosis Relationship quality / Depression -
  1. a Key findings are from multivariate results. + indicates significant positive association (p ≤ 0.05); − significant negative association (p ≤ 0.05), 0 no association; (+) positive but non-significant trend; (−) negative but non-significant trend. b No multivariate results available
  2. Abbreviations for social relationship measures : DAS Dyadic Adjustment Scale, FRI Family Relationship Index, F-SozU Fragebogen zur sozialen Unterstützung, III The Illness Invalidation Inventory, IRGL Impact of Rheumatic Diseases on General Health and Lifestyle, ISEL Interpersonal Support Evaluation List, ISS Inventory of Social Support, LSNS Lubben Social Network Scale, MOS SSS Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Scale, MPI Multidimensional Pain Inventory, MSPSS Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support, PRQ Personal Resource Questionnaire, PSSS Perceived Social Support Scale, PDS Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale, SNI Social Network Index, SPS Social Provisions Scale, SSE Social Support Effectiveness, SSIPAD Social Support Inventory for People with Acquired Disabilities, SSL Social Support List, SSQ-6 Social Support Questionnaire, SSQS Social Support Questionnaire for Satisfaction, SSQT Social Support Questionnaire for Transactions; SSRS Social Support Resource Scale, STMSSC Stong Ties Measure Social Support Scale, Tel-Aviv SSI Tel-Aviv Social Support Instrument, QSSS The Quality of Social Support Scale
  3. Abbreviations for mental health and wellbeing measures : ADS Anxiety Depression Self-rating Scale, AIMS Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale, BDI Beck Depression Inventory, BHI Beck Hopelessness Inventory, CAPS Clinician Administered PTSD Scale, CES-D Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression, GDS Geriatric Depression Scale, GHQ General Health Questionnaire, HADS Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HAMD Hamilton Depression Scale, HAQ Health Assessment Questionnaire, HSCL-25 The Hopkins Symptom Checklist, IA Index of Affect, IES Impact of Event Scale, IPW Index of Psychological Wellbeing, IRGL Impact of Rheumatic Diseases on General Health and Lifestyle, LSI Life Satisfaction Index, MHI Mental Health Inventory, MSQLI Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life Index, MSQOL-54 Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life, PANAS Positive and Negative Affect Scale, PHQ-9 Patient Health Questionnaire-9, PTCI Post Traumatic Cognitions Inventory, QLI Quality of Life Index, QOLS Quality of Life Scale, RAND-36 Medical Outcomes Survey, RaQOL Rheumatoid Arthritis Quality of Life Questionnaire, SAQOL-39 Stroke and Aphasia Quality of Life Scale, SCID Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders, SF-36 Short Form Health Survey, STAI State Trait Anxiety Inventory, SWLS Satisfaction with Life Scale, SWS The Subjective Wellbeing Scale, WHOQOL-BREF World Health Organisation Quality of Life-BREF