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Table 4 Pupae-positive households and temephos presence in surveys in Managua control sites between 2005 and 2013

From: Beyond efficacy in water containers: Temephos and household entomological indices in six studies between 2005 and 2013 in Managua, Nicaragua

Survey date Percentage of households with temephos observed in any container Temephos observed in any container Temephos not observed in any container OR (95% CI)a
No. of inspected households No. (%) with any pupae No. of inspected households No. (%) with any pupae
Oct 2005 13.1 346 73 (21) 2290 439 (19) 1.15 (0.86–1.54)
Oct 2006 25.1 644 69 (11) 1992 195 (10) 1.17 (0.86–1.59)
Oct 2007 19.8 703 98 (14) 2853 347 (12) 1.11 (0.85–1.43)
Jan 2011 20.6 829 70 (8) 3202 205 (6) 1.31 (0.98–1.76)
Aug 2012 33.2 1394 286 (21) 2806 539 (19) 1.17 (0.98–1.40)
Jan 2013 23.7 966 127 (13) 3108 259 (8) 1.67 (1.31–2.13)
  1. OR of >1.0 indicates that households with temephos present were more likely to have a positive entomological indicator; italic font indicates the association was significant at the 5% level
  2. aOdds ratio and 95% confidence intervals from GLMM, with cluster as random effect