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Table 4 Models of children’s and young people’s health literacy (grouped according to target group and alphabetical order)

From: Health literacy in childhood and youth: a systematic review of definitions and models

No Author Target group (TG) as expressed by papers HL definition (Source: primary = by same author as model); secondary = different source) Primary purpose of study Context in which or for which developed/tested Models described specificities of TG TG participation in development Empirically tested?
Children & Primary and Lower Secondary School Students
1 Brown et al. [32] Exemplary for the US NHES [37] Students, grade 5-8, Age 9-13 Primary (see Table 2) Operationalization: Conceptual base for measurement tool (School) health education Yes No Yes
2 Paek et al. [28] Students, grade 7, Age 12-13 Secondary (WHO, 1998) Conceptualization; explorative & testing Health Socialization Yes Yes Yes
3 Schmidt et al. [25] Children, grade 5, 9–13 years Secondary (Nutbeam, 2008) Operationalization: Effect model for intervention study (School) health education Yes No Yes
Young people & Secondary School Students  
4 Manganello [21] Young people, n.s. Secondary (IOM, 2004) Conceptualization; Explorative Health care; Disease prevention Yes No No
5 Massey et al. [33] Young people, aged 13-17 Primary (see Table 2) Conceptualization inductive and explorative Health care system Yes Yes No
6 Paakkari & Paakkari [8] Students, n.s. Primary (see Table 2) Conceptualization; theoretical exploration (School) health education Yes No No
7 Rask, Uusiautti, Määttä, [29] Secondary school students, aged app. 18-20 Secondary, WHO (1998), as cited by Mancuso (2009) Conceptualization; inductive (School) health education No Yes No
8 Steckelberg et al. [22] Students, grade 11, Age 16-18 Secondary (IOM, 2004) Operationalization: Effect model for intervention study School curricula programme Yes No Yes
9 Subramaniam et al. [26] Young people, aged 10-15 Secondary (NAAL, 2013) Operationalization: Deductive for intervention testing & evaluation School health programme Yes No Yes
10 Wharf Higgins, Begoray, & MacDonald [27] Students, grade 10 (Canadian system) Secondary (e.g. Kickbusch, 2007) Conceptualization; inductive and testing School health education Yes No Yes
11 Wu et al. [18] Students, grade 10 (Canadian system) Primary (see Table 2) Operationalization: Conceptual base for scale development School health education Yes No Yes
Different age groups or considering a life course perspective
12 Lenartz et al. [38, 69] DE General population, empirically tested for young people 17-21. Secondary (Soellner et al., 2009) Conceptualization; inductive and testing Different health related domains No No Yes
13 Mancuso [34] Population across the life course, n.s. Primary (see Table 2) Conceptualization; explorative Different health related domains No No No
14 Martin & Chen [24] Population across the life course None stated Conceptualization; explorative Impact factors on child health No No No
15 Nutbeam [35] General population, focus upon health education Primary (see Table 2) Conceptualization; explorative Public health; different health related domains No No Yes
16 Sanders et al. [5, 31] Children at different ages Secondary (IOM, 2004) Conceptualization; explorative Different health related domains Yes No No
17 Soellner et al. [36] DE General population, including young people Primary (see Table 2) Conceptualization; inductive and testing Different health related domains No No Yes
18 Sørensen et al. [10] Population across the life course, n.s. Primary (see Table 2) Conceptualization; explorative & testing Health care; Disease prevention; Health Promotion No No Yes
19 Wolf et al. [23] Population across the life course, n.s. Secondary (IOM, 2004) Conceptualization; Explorative Health care No No No
20 Zarcadoolas, et al. [4] Population across the life course, n.s. Primary (see Table 2) Conceptualization; inductive and explorative Public Health No No No
21 Zeyer & Odermatt [30] DE Students, n.s Secondary (HCC-Lab, 2005) Conceptualization; explorative (School) health education/biology No No No