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Table 2 Characteristics of studies on older people from black and minority ethnic groups (BME)

From: Strategies to improve engagement of ‘hard to reach’ older people in research on health promotion: a systematic review

Number Author(s) Country Study design Participant population group (oldest old, BME, deprived area)and age Potential facilitators Potential barriers
[28] Arean, P. A. et al. 2003 United States Quantitative, quasi-experimental comparative study BME(African American, Latino) ≥65 years Ethnical and cultural aspects, community connections, recruitment and maintenance strategy Poor recruitment and engagement strategy
[42] Bynum, S. A. et al. 2012 United States Quantitative, structured interviews BME(African American, Hispanic) ≥50 years None Lack of confidence, lack of knowledge
[30] Carlson, M. et al. 2014 United States Quantitative, descriptive study embedded in RCT BME(African American, Hispanic) 60–95 years Ethnical and cultural aspects, community connections, social support, providing transportation Other priorities
[27] Coleman, E.A. et al. 1997 United States Qualitative, descriptive study on recruitment methods BME (African American) ‘older people’ - age not specified Community connections, incentives, recruitment and maintenance strategy Poor recruitment and engagement strategy
[25] Dyall, L. et al. 2013 New Zealand Quantitative, structured quesionnaires, descriptive study on recruitment methods Oldest oldand BME (Māori), ≥85 years Trust, ethnical and cultural aspects, benefits to participant’s family, community connections, recruitment and maintenance strategy Poor health, other priorities, poor recruitment and engagement strategy
[32] Ellish, N. J. et al. 2009 United States Quantitative, descriptive study on recruitment methods BME(African American) ≥65 years Community connections, familiar location Poor recruitment and engagement strategy
[38] Holland, C.A. et al. 2008 England Mixed methods, questionnaire survey and telephone interviews BME (Indian, African-Caribbean) ≥50 years Incentives, social support, familiar location Poor health, poor recruitment and engagement strategy, lack of transportation
[37] Horne, M. et al. 2013 England Qualitative, focus groups BME (Indian, Pakistani) 60–70 years Social support Poor health, lack of transportation, feeling too old, lack of motivation, cultural and language barriers, lack of confidence
[29] MacEntee, M.I. et al. 2002 United States Qualitative, descriptive study on recruitment methods BME(Vietnamese, Spanish, Cantonese-speaking, Punjabi-speaking) 60–75 years Community connections, recruitment and maintenance strategy Cultural and language barriers
[41] Manthorpe, J. et al. 2009 England Qualitative, focus groups BME (Asian, Black, Mixed, Other) ‘older people’ - age not specified None Cultural and language barriers
[40] Martinez, I.L. et al. 2009 United States Qualitative, focus groups Deprived area and BME (African American), 61–89 years None Lack of transportation, too tired, costs
[36] Mathews, A. et al. 2010 United States Qualitative, focus groups BME (African Americans, American Indians,Latinos, Chinese, Vietnamese) 50–90 years Benefits to the individual, social support Poor health, other priorities, lack of transportation, costs, feeling too old, lack of confidence, lack of knowledge
[39] Prohaska, T.R. et al. 2000 United States Qualitative, structured interviews BME (African American) ≥55 years Social support Other priorities, lack of motivation
[31] Stineman, M.G. et al. 2010 United States Quantitative, randomised controlled trial BME (African American) ≥65 years Community connections, social support, providing transportation Poor health
[33] Sullivan-Marx, E.M. et al. 2011 United States Qualitative, descriptive study and structured questionnaires BME (African American) ‘older people’ - age not specified Trust, benefits to participant’s family, recruitment and maintenance strategy, providing transportation Poor health, other priorities, lack of motivation
[34] Walcott-McQuigg, J.A. & Prohaska, T.R. 2001 United States Qualitative, focus groups BME (African American) ≥55 years Benefits to the individual, incentives, social support, providing transportation Other priorities, lack of motivation
[35] Wilcox, S. et al. 2005 United States Qualitative, focus groups BME (African American) 67.5 +/−9.2 years Benefits to the individual Lack of transportation, too tired, costs, feeling too old, lack of motivation, lack of confidence, lack of knowledge
[43] Williams, M.P. 1996 United States Qualitative, focus groups and individual interviews BME (African American) ≥55 years Incentives, familiar location, recruitment and maintenance strategy None