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Table 1 Characteristics of studies on the oldest old and older people living in deprived areas

From: Strategies to improve engagement of ‘hard to reach’ older people in research on health promotion: a systematic review

Reference number Author(s) Country Study design Participant population group (oldest old, BME, deprived area)and age Potential facilitators (themes) Potential barriers (themes)
[4] Davies, K. et al. 2010 England Quantitative, descriptive study on recruitment methods Oldest old, ≥85 years Family involvement, trust and respect, recruitment and maintenance strategy, location, flexible assessment, participant consent strategy Mortality risk, poor health, unwillingness, interfering family members
[25] Dyall, L. et al. 2013 New Zealand Quantitative, structured questionnaires, descriptive study on recruitment methods Oldest oldand BME (Māori), ≥85 years Family involvement, trust and respect, recruitment and maintenance strategy Mortality risk, poor health, unwillingness
[26] Ewart, C.V. et al. 2001 United States Quantitative, descriptive study on recruitment methods Oldest old, 65–105 years Trust and respect, recruitment and maintenance strategy, flexible assessment Mortality risk, poor health, unwillingness, interfering family members, poor location
[5] Pascucci, M. et al. 2012 United States Quantitative, descriptive study and structured survey Oldest old, 80–101 years None Poor health, poor location
[44] Buijs, R. et al. 2003 Canada Qualitative, focus groups and individual interviews Deprived area, 61–90 years Motivation, adaptable service Poor health, lack of interest
[40] Martinez, I.L. et al. 2009 United States Qualitative, focus groups Deprived area and BME (African American), 61–89 years Motivation, free food Poor health, inaccessibility, costs
[21] Mills, K.M. et al. 1996 United States Quantitative, descriptive study and structured interviews Deprived area, ≥62 years Introductory meeting at the housing estate Poor health, lack of interest, letter invitation