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Table 4 Paternal BMI before pregnancy in association with physical activity and fitness among adolescents. Mean differences (95% CI) of physical activity (METh/week) and cardiorespiratory fitness (ml·kg−1·min−1) in adolescents whose fathers were underweight, overweight, or obese at the beginning of the pregnancy compared with offspring of normal weight fathers

From: Prenatal determinants of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence – Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 study

  Model BMI category (kg/m2)
  < 20 20–25 25–30 > 30
  Underweight Normal weight Overweight Obese
Physical activity (METh/week)   N = 235 N = 3600 N = 1619 N = 163
1 −1.5 (−3.7;0.7) Mean 31.1 (SD 16.8) −1.2 (−2.2;-0.2)* −2.2 (−4.8;0.4)
2 −1.4 (−3.6;0.7)   −1.0 (−2.0;-0.1)* −1.9 (−4.5;0.7)
3a −1.4 (−3.6;0.8)   −1.0 (−2.0;0.0)* −1.9 (−4.5;0.7)
3b −1.5 (−3.6;0.7)   −1.0 (−1.9;0.0) −1.5 (−4.0;1.1)
3c −1.1 (−3.3;1.1)   −1.1 (−2.0;-0.1)* −1.5 (−4.1;1.1)
Cardiorespiratory fitness (ml·kg−1·min-1)   N = 165 N = 2517 N = 1141 N = 108
1 1.1 (−0.2;2.3) Mean 42.8 (SD 10.7) −0.7 (−1.3;-0.2)* −1.9 (−3.4;-0.4)*
2 1.1 (−0.2;2.3)   −0.7 (−1.2;-0.1)* −1.8 (−3.3;-0.3)*
3a 1.0 (−0.3;2.3)   −0.6 (−1.1;0.0) −1.5 (−3.0;0.0)
3b 1.1 (−0.2;2.3)   −0.6 (−1.2;-0.1)* −1.7 (−3.2;-0.15)*
3c 0.6 (−0.6;1.8)   0.0 (−0.5;0.5) −0.4 (−1.8;1.1)
  1. Multiple linear regression models are adjusted for:
  2. Model 1: sex
  3. Model 2: sex, parental education
  4. Model 3a: Model 2 + length of gestation, maternal GDM, maternal hypertension, BMI of the mother at the beginning of pregnancy, smoking of the mother during pregnancy
  5. Model 3b: Model 2 + physical activity of mother and father at the offspring age 16
  6. Model 3c: Model 2 + subject’s BMI, age, pubertal stage and smoking, and season of the year at study
  7. P values are for mean difference between risk factor groups and controls: * < 0.05. Categorical covariates are dummy-coded, with a separate dummy variable for missing values