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Table 5 Associations between partner violence exposure, covariates and symptoms of depression. Presented as adjusted Odds Ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). N = 573 women

From: Prevalence of intimate partner violence and its association with symptoms of depression; a cross-sectional study based on a female population sample in Sweden

Explanatory variables and confounders Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
Controlling behavior past 12 months
(Unexposed vs. Exposed) 2.44 (1.61–3.71) 2.27 (1.48–3.50) 2.43 (1.56–3.79)
Age
(26–65 years vs 18–25) 0.85 (0.46–1.59) 0.90 (0.48–1.68) 0.83 (0.44–1.60)
Civil status
(Married, cohabitant vs. single, divorced) 2.51 (1.43–4.41) 2.62 (1.48–4.64) 2.75 (1.53–4.95)
Employment status
 (Employed vs. not employed) 2.19 (1.42–3.40) 1.94 (1.23–3.06) 1.97 (1.23–3.14)
Social support
(Good vs. poor)   1.90 (1.27–2.86) 1.88 (1.24–2.85)
Grown up with- and witnessed IPV
(No/ unsure vs. witnessed IPV)    3.92 (1.72–8.91)
Physical violence past 12 months
(Unexposed vs. Exposed) 3.60 (1.84–7.04) 3.01 (1.52–5.98) 3.06 (1.50–6.24)
Age
(26–65 years vs 18–25) 0.86 (0.46–1.60) 0.86 (0.46–1.62) 0.81 (0.42–1.54)
Civil status
(Married, cohabitant vs. single, divorced) 2.61 (1.46–4.65) 2.73 (1.52–4.92) 2.80 (1.53–5.13)
Employment status
 (Employed vs. not employed) 2.26 (1.46–3.50) 2.03 (1.28–3.21) 2.06 (1.30–3.29)
Social support
(Good vs. poor)   1.92 (1.28–2.88) 1.92 (1.27–2.90)
Grown up with- and witnessed IPV
(No/ unsure vs. witnessed IPV)    3.56 (1.58–8.02)
S
(Unexposed vs. Exposed) 5.02 (1.52–16.57) 4.47 (1.31–15.26) 4.67 (1.35–16.18)
Age
(26–65 years vs 18–25) 0.93 (0.50–1.73) 0.93 (0.49–1.75) 0.85 (0.44–1.64)
Civil status
(Married, cohabitant vs. single, divorced) 2.62 (1.48–4.64) 2.71 (1.51–4.88) 2.77 (1.52–5.01)
Employment status
 (Employed vs. not employed) 2.13 (1.38–3.30) 1.91 (1.21–3.01) 1.96 (1.23–3.12)
Social support
(Good vs. poor)   2.09 (1.40–3.12) 2.08 (1.38–3.13)
Grown up with- and witnessed IPV
(No/ unsure vs. witnessed IPV)    3.53 (1.57–7.96)