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Table 4 Bivariable associations between exposure to partner violence, covariates and self-reported symptoms of depression. Presented as past year prevalence (n), percentage (%) and crude odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). N = 573 women

From: Prevalence of intimate partner violence and its association with symptoms of depression; a cross-sectional study based on a female population sample in Sweden

Explanatory variables and potential confounders Self-reported symptoms of depression past 12 months
Experienced ≥ 2 out of 5 symptoms Crude OR (95% CI)
% (n)  
Controlling behavior past 12 months
 Unexposed 61.5 (104) 1
 Exposed (1 of the items) 38.5 (65) 2.43 (1.63–3.63)
Physical violence past 12 months
 Unexposed 84.6 (143) 1
 Exposed (1 of the items) 15.4 (26) 3.78 (1.99–7.17)
Sexual violence past 12 months
 Unexposed 93.5 (158) 1
 Exposed (1 of the items) 6.5 (11) 5.10 (1.74–14.91)
Age groups
 26–65 86.7 (157) 1
 18–25 13.3 (24) 1.49 (0.86–2.58)
Civil status
 Married, cohabitant, registered partnership, boy- or girlfriend 77.2 (139) 1
 Single, widowed, divorced 22.8 (41) 1.46 (1.53–3.96)
Educational level
 University/ High school 83.9 (151) 1
 Elementary school 16.1 (29) 1.00 (0.62–1.62)
Employment status
 Employed, parental leave, leave of absence 64.1 (116) 1
 Student, unemployed, sick-leave, early retirement /retired, home-worker, other 35.9 (65) 2.45 (1.64–3.64)
Social support
 Good 50.3 (88) 1
 Poor 49.7 (87) 2.45 (1.70–3.56)
Grown up with- and witnessed IPV
 No/ Unsure 85.4 (152) 1
 Witnessed violence 14.6 (26) 3.92 (2.05–7.52)