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Table 1 Individual regression modelsa for all potential correlates of screen time and sedentary time for boys and girls

From: Do the correlates of screen time and sedentary time differ in preschool children?

Variable Screen time mins/day Sedentary time mins/day
Boys (n = 504) Girls (n = 433) Boys (n = 394) Girls (n = 323)
% or mean (SD)b β (95% CI) % or mean (SD)b β (95% CI) % or mean (SD)b β (95% CI) % or mean (SD)b β (95% CI)
Individual level
Demographic and family profile
Child disability/poor health 10.3% 4.57 (−17.79, 26.93) 5.6% 39.18 (−4.82, 83.18) 9.9% −10.93 (−21.99, 0.12) 5.6% 14.38 (0.64, 28.13)
Child’s birth parents live together 86.9% −5.90 (−30.42, 18.63) 89.3% −10.91 (−40.22, 18.40) 88.1% 9.71 (−0.63, 20.05) 90.0% −1.60 (−14.50, 11.30)
Child sleep duration (hours) 11.1 (1.1) −13.96 (−22.40, −5.52) 11.0 (1.1) −10.24 (−16.91, −3.57) 11.1 (1.0) −7.09 (−11.35, −2.82) 11.0 (1.1) −6.52 (−9.20, −3.84)
Child has siblings 84.9% −0.98 (−17.83, 15.88) 82.3% −8.30 (−24.40, 7.81) 86.6% −4.63 (−16.17, 6.91) 83.5% 1.79 (−9.37, 12.96)
Child BMI categoryc
 Underweight/healthy weight (ref) 82.5% 0 80.8% 0 83.3% 0 80.0% 0
 Overweight/obese 17.5% 2.64 (−14.22, 19.51) 19.2% 2.19 (−14.84, 19.21) 16.7% −1.30 (−12.00, 10.02) 20.0% 6.94 (−3.84, 17.72)
Maternal age (years) 37.1 (5.3) −0.13 (−1.65, 1.40) 37.1 (5.1) −1.22 (−2.53, 0.09) 37.0 (5.1) 0.57 (−0.06, 1.21) 37.1 (5.2) −0.30 (−1.07, 0.48)
Mother born in Australia 70.1% −17.00 (−32.69, −1.32) 68.1% −26.60 (−42.88, −10.32) 72.6% −7.75 (−16.18, 0.69) 68.1% −0.61 (−8.89, 7.67)
Maternal BMI categoryd
 Healthy weight (ref) 62.1% 0 60.9% 0 62.1% 0 62.8% 0
 Overweight 22.7% 11.13 (−1.70, 23.96) 21.8% 7.28 (−8.60, 23.16) 23.4% 5.69 (−2.98, 14.37) 19.2% 9.99 (0.51, 19.47)
 Obese 15.2% 17.04 (−8.42, 42.49) 17.3% 26.78 (7.91, 45.65) 14.6% −8.80 (−18.27, 0.68) 18.0% 7.98 (−1.32, 17.28)
Mother in paid employmente 55.3% −6.29 (−20.24, 7.66) 52.5% −9.49 (−22.72, 3.74) 55.5% 5.63 (−2.12, 13.38) 50.8% 3.91 (−2.83, 10.65)
Maternal disability/poor health 3.4% 7.72 (−28.30, 43.75) 4.4% 33.04 (−3.77, 69.86) 2.5% −17.05 (−35.42, 1.32) 4.6% 19.32 (5.72, 32.92)
Maternal education
Year 10 or equivalent (ref) 10.6% 0 11.2% 0 9.9% 0 11.2% 0
Year 12/trade/diploma 31.7% −6.72 (−34.83, 21.38) 36.3% −10.37 (−34.49, 13.75) 31.0% −7.21 (−21.03, 6.61) 34.7% 6.71 (−9.16, 22.57)
University degree/post-graduate 57.7% −17.11 (−45.00, 10.78) 52.6% −34.98 (−57.46, −12.49) 59.0% −1.83 (−13.93, 10.28) 54.2% −6.23 (−18.96, 6.49)
Low income status (health care/pension card) 20.4% 13.72 (−4.88, 32.33) 18.1% 23.91 (3.92, 43.90) 17.7% −4.05 (−14.67, 6.57) 17.7% 4.40 (−5.70, 14.5)
Paternal age (years) 39.1 (5.7) −0.65 (−1.74, 0.43) 39.2 (5.5) −0.58 (−1.99, 0.83) 38.9 (5.5) 0.85 (0.21, 1.50) 39.0 (5.3) −0.27 (−1.14, 0.59)
Father born in Australia 68.3% −8.24 (−22.90, 6.42) 66.9% −19.14 (−35.97, −2.32) 71.3% −6.46 (−15.31, 2.39) 69.5% −2.25 (−11.36, 6.86)
Paternal BMI categoryd
 Healthy weight (ref) 38.6% 0 34.0% 0 36.7% 0 36.5% 0
 Overweight 45.2% 1.91 (−11.26, 15.08) 48.7% 4.62 (−11.62, 20.87) 46.9% −0.38 (−9.41, 8.66) 47.0% −3.47 (−11.23, 4.28)
 Obese 16.2% 18.84 (2.21, 35.48) 17.3% 18.97 (−2.31, 40.24) 16.3% 8.57 (−2.73, 19.86) 16.5% 6.99 (−4.81, 18.80)
Father in paid employmente 88.9% 10.16 (−7.81, 28.13) 90.8% −16.27 (−42.18, 9.64) 89.7% 1.96 (−11.21, 15.12) 90.9% −10.51 (−27.72, 6.71)
Paternal disability/poor health 4.9% 32.13 (−6.56, 70.83) 4.4% 38.40 (−10.43, 87.23) 4.5% 14.39 (−3.29, 32.08) 4.8% 4.17 (−9.92, 18.26)
Paternal education
Year 10 or equivalent (ref) 9.6% 0 9.5% 0 9.9% 0 7.8% 0
Year 12/trade/diploma 39.9% −8.63 (−29.07, 11.82) 42.4% 0.26 (−25.22, 25.74) 39.2% −4.91 (−16.47, 6.65) 41.8% −8.10 (−26.21, 10.01)
University degree/post-graduate 50.5% −14.67 (−33.75, 4.42) 48.1% −28.92 (−52.31, −5.53) 51.0% 0.95 (−9.83, 11.73) 50.3% −9.01 (−25.08, 7.06)
Child PA and SB
Usual frequency of active transport per week (e.g., ride a bike to kinder) 4.6 (3.9) −0.22 (−1.79, 1.35) 4.3 (4.1) −3.01 (−4.53, −1.49) 4.4 (3.6) −0.73 (−1.65, 0.19) 4.2 (3.9) −0.10 (−1.28, 1.07)
Usual frequency of non-organised activities per week (e.g., play in the backyard) 22.7 (9.8) −0.51 (−1.20, 0.19) 22.8 (10.4) −0.35 (−0.80, 0.09) 22.3 (9.7) −0.28 (−0.65, 0.09) 22.3 (10.4) −0.18 (−0.56, 0.19)
Number of organised activities per week (e.g., swimming, tennis) 0.9 (0.8) −3.75 (−12.14, 4.63) 1.2 (0.8) −17.67 (−25.95, −9.39) 0.9 (0.8) 0.93 (−3.81, 5.67) 1.2 (0.8) −3.29 (−7.79, 1.21)
Child attends playgroupf 24.3% 4.98 (−8.96, 18.92) 20.8% 1.52 (−16.25, 19.30) 24.1% 0.27 (−7.36, 7.90) 20.1% −3.88 (−11.64, 3.88)
Average outdoor play time hours/day (week and weekend day) 4.3 (2.7) 0.11 (−2.60, 2.82) 3.8 (2.5) 1.18 (−1.27, 3.63) 4.2 (2.6) −0.27 (−1.77, 1.24) 3.7 (2.5) −0.75 (−2.33, 0.83)
Child personality, preferences and constraints
Child active co-participation preferences (e.g., active by him/herself, active with his/her friends) 1.8 (1.5) 0.42 (−2.82, 3.65) 1.6 (1.4) −0.78 (−5.74, 4.19) 1.8 (1.5) −0.59 (−3.43, 2.25) 1.5 (1.4) −1.92 (−4.60, 0.77)
Child is active for longer with someone else 79.2% −20.57 (−40.06, −1.08) 78.3% 14.43 (−2.48, 31.34) 78.9% −6.32 (−16.18, 3.55) 78.5% −1.70 (−11.41, 8.00)
Child is competitive with other children when being active 66.2% 11.48 (−1.00, 23.96) 51.9% −1.21 (−14.28, 11.86) 66.9% 2.75 (−3.41, 8.90) 51.3% 0.33 (−7.44, 8.09)
Child prosocial PA behaviour (e.g., asks for opportunities to be active) 12.8 (2.8) 0.29 (−2.17, 2.76) 12.6 (2.9) −0.43 (−2.58, 1.73) 12.8 (2.7) −0.24 (−1.40, 0.92) 12.5 (2.8) −0.01 (−1.60, 1.58)
Child preferences for SB (e.g., more likely to watch TV than be active) 4.1 (1.6) 10.07 (5.98, 14.16) 4.4 (1.4) 14.51 (9.71, 19.32) 4.1 (1.6) 0.89 (−1.42, 3.20) 4.5 (1.4) 1.08 (−2.37, 4.53)
Child constraints to PA (e.g., too tired to do more PA) −12.1 (4.5) 1.60 (0.11, 3.09) −11.9 (4.4) 1.28 (−0.07, 2.63) −12.2 (4.4) −0.48 (−1.21, 0.25) −11.8 (4.5) −0.33 (−1.12, 0.46)
Social level
Parental influence
Parental concerns about child’s PA/SB -3.9 (3.3) 4.59 (2.51, 6.66) −4.4 (3.1) 7.47 (4.90, 10.04) −3.8 (3.3) 0.57 (−0.44, 1.57) −4.3 (3.0) 0.59 (−0.69, 1.87)
Parental constraints to child’s PA 6.9 (3.1) 2.87 (0.36, 5.38) 6.7 (3.2) 5.05 (3.19, 6.92) 6.9 (3.0) 0.14 (−1.01, 1.28) 6.8 (3.1) 0.94 (−0.19, 2.07)
Parent likes to participate in outdoor play 73.5% 4.70 (−8.72, 18.12) 70.8% 7.03 (−7.35, 21.41) 73.0% 3.65 (−3.37, 10.67) 70.0% −5.31 (−13.37, 2.75)
Parent prefers to be social with other parents 36.7% −5.65 (−17.2, 5.90) 39.1% 11.65 (−1.77, 25.07) 35.6% −0.68 (−7.52, 6.15) 36.8% −2.02 (−10.21, 6.16)
Parent gets bored watching child playing in outdoor spaces 11.8% −22.01 (−36.87, −7.15) 12.5% 5.81 (−18.58, 30.19) 11.5% −0.71 (−8.44, 7.02) 12.7% −7.79 (−18.44, 2.86)
Parent likes child to do activities of older children 24.0% −10.26 (−24.05, 3.52) 22.5% 12.73 (−2.27, 27.73) 24.7% 1.18 (−6.7, 9.07) 22.0% 6.29 (−2.93, 15.50)
Parent likes child to do activities they did as a child 34.3% 5.27 (−9.72, 20.26) 33.0% 1.79 (−12.19, 15.76) 34.4% −0.71 (−7.41, 5.99) 34.1% −0.01 (−8.59, 8.58)
Parent gets bored going to the same place 12.8% 5.71 (−21.47, 32.88) 10.9% 7.73 (−17.83, 33.29) 10.7% −0.83 (−10.72, 9.06) 11.2% −6.60 (−16.29, 3.09)
Parent believes it’s important to be active as a family 90.8% −26.67 (−48.93, −4.42) 86.9% −14.56 (−34.31, 5.19) 90.6% −0.22 (−12.23, 11.80) 86.8% −6.87 (−19.39, 5.65)
Parental self-efficacy to support PA 5.9 (1.7) −3.62 (−7.02, −0.23) 5.9 (1.8) −8.07 (−11.75, −4.38) 5.9 (1.7) 0.06 (−2.00, 2.12) 5.8 (1.8) −0.54 (−2.60, 1.53)
Parental self-efficacy to limit screen time 8.7 (2.3) −9.15 (−11.68, −6.62) 8.9 (2.5) −8.25 (−10.98, −5.52) 8.8 (2.3) −0.20 (−1.86, 1.46) 9.0 (2.4) −0.89 (−2.43, 0.66)
Parental health knowledge/beliefs of child’s PA 1.5 (2.2) −4.19 (−8.74, 0.36) 1.3 (2.2) −5.65 (−8.87, −2.44) 1.6 (2.1) −0.08 (−1.72, 1.56) 1.3 (2.2) 0.46 (−1.31, 2.23)
Rules and boundaries
Parental rules to limit screen time 2.1 (1.6) −11.40 (−16.32, −6.48) 2.2 (1.5) −14.20 (−18.24, −10.16) 2.2 (1.6) −0.64 (−2.65, 1.37) 2.2 (1.5) −1.90 (−4.46, 0.66)
Parental rules about games inside (e.g., no throwing balls inside) −0.2 (2.1) 1.13 (−2.50, 4.76) −0.2 (2.1) 1.13 (−2.50, 4.76) −0.2 (2.1) −0.16 (−1.90, 1.58) −0.1 (2.1) 1.16 (−0.73, 3.05)
Parental rules about PA for stranger danger, traffic, injury 2.3 (1.5) −1.23 (−6.15, 3.70) 2.3 (1.6) 1.27 (−2.65, 5.19) 2.3 (1.5) −1.73 (−4.17, 0.71) 2.3 (1.5) −0.31 (−3.17, 2.54)
Parent allows child to play freely in backyard/street −0.1 (1.2) −6.29 (−13.74, 1.16) −0.1 (1.2) −7.11 (−12.49, −1.73) −0.1 (1.1) −2.67 (−6.09, 0.75) −0.04 (1.2) −0.97 (−3.99, 2.05)
Parent switches off screen entertainment 2.7 (1.4) 3.19 (−0.62, 7.00) 2.6 (1.3) 3.26 (−1.76, 8.28) 2.7 (1.4) −0.27 (−2.80, 2.26) 2.7 (1.3) −0.83 (−3.35, 1.69)
Social interaction and support
Child is active at social gatherings 6.0 (1.0) 5.26 (−1.42, 11.95) 6.0 (1.2) 1.05 (−5.88, 7.97) 6.0 (1.0) −0.54 (−5.45, 4.37) 5.9 (1.2) −1.86 (−4.50, 0.77)
Maternal PA emotional support for child 5.5 (2.1) 4.32 (1.74, 6.90) 5.4 (2.1) 1.20 (−1.84, 4.24) 5.5 (2.1) −1.75 (−3.46, −0.04) 5.4 (2.1) −0.92 (−2.55, 0.71)
Paternal PA emotional support for child 4.7 (2.4) 4.29 (1.89, 6.70) 4.6 (2.4) 1.86 (−0.95, 4.66) 4.7 (2.4) −1.25 (−2.77, 0.28) 4.6 (2.4) −0.73 (−2.43, 0.97)
Modelling of PA
Maternal time in PA (hours/week) 5.4 (4.2) −0.01 (−1.72, 1.69) 5.0 (4.0) −1.28 (−3.01, 0.45) 5.3 (4.0) −0.17 (−0.79, 0.45) 4.9 (3.9) 0.46 (−0.54, 1.45)
Paternal time in PA (hours/week) 5.4 (4.7) 0.24 (−0.93, 1.40) 5.2 (4.6) −2.12 (−3.65, −0.59) 5.0 (4.3) −0.47 (−1.17, 0.22) 5.2 (4.5) 0.35 (−0.53, 1.23)
Maternal TV viewing (hours/week) 8.6 (6.8) 3.87 (1.81, 5.93) 9.0 (6.5) 2.62 (1.56, 3.68) 8.6 (6.1) −0.14 (−0.74, 0.46) 9.2 (6.6) 0.10 (−0.46, 0.66)
Paternal TV viewing (hours/week) 9.6 (6.6) 1.91 (0.96, 2.85) 9.8 (7.0) 2.26 (1.23, 3.29) 9.8 (6.4) 0.16 (−0.39, 0.71) 9.6 (6.9) −0.01 (−0.48, 0.46)
Maternal role modelling of PA (times/week) 3.2 (2.0) −0.63 (−4.49, 3.23) 3.0 (2.0) −3.67 (−6.97, −0.38) 3.3 (2.0) −0.29 (−1.94, 1.35) 3.0 (2.0) −1.03 (−3.27, 1.22)
Paternal role modelling of PA (times/week) 2.8 (2.0) −1.82 (−4.88, 1.24) 2.6 (2.0) −4.68 (−7.73, −1.63) 2.8 (1.9) −0.21 (−2.01, 1.60) 2.7 (2.0) −0.28 (−2.26, 1.69)
Physical environment level
Dog ownership 32.3% 3.35 (−9.64, 16.34) 32.2% −1.44 (−14.89, 12.00) 32.1% 0.90 (−6.43, 8.22) 31.2% 4.94 (−2.91, 12.79)
Number of pieces of toys/equipment to be physically active with at home (e.g., swings, slide) 13.3 (3.5) −1.62 (−3.25, 0.001) 13.1 (3.7) −2.37 (−4.15, −0.60) 13.4 (3.5) −0.12 (−1.17, 0.93) 13.1 (3.7) −0.69 (−1.89, 0.52)
Lives on medium/large block 86.1% 1.16 (−14.99, 17.30) 85.2% −8.11 (−26.65, 10.43) 86.1% −1.06 (−12.25, 10.13) 84.5% −6.63 (−18.48, 5.21)
Number of features at home (e.g., front fence, covered outdoor areas) 1.9 (0.9) −11.00 (−20.38, −1.62) 1.9 (0.9) −11.48 (−17.82, −5.14) 2.0 (0.8) 2.02 (−2.10, 6.14) 1.9 (0.8) −3.14 (−8.23, 1.95)
Lives on a cul-de-sac 24.1% 24.23 (7.27, 41.19) 29.6% 13.57 (−1.66, 28.79) 23.3% −5.76 (−13.49, 1.97) 28.0% 0.31 (−7.40, 8.01)
Number of pieces of electronic equipment at home (e.g., DVD player, PlayStation) 5.1 (1.2) 3.83 (−2.76, 10.41) 5.1 (1.1) 2.89 (−2.67, 8.46) 5.1 (1.1) 1.01 (−2.89, 4.91) 5.0 (1.1) 1.58 (−2.33, 5.49)
Number of TVs at home 2.2 (1.2) 7.31 (1.89, 12.74) 2.2 (1.1) 14.08 (7.61, 20.55) 2.2 (1.1) −0.80 (−3.60, 2.00) 2.2 (1.0) 4.10 (1.00, 7.20)
TV in child’s bedroom 10.6% 23.51 (4.75, 42.28) 9.5% 50.01 (23.84, 76.18) 10.0% 0.02 (−11.97, 12.01) 7.1% 12.36 (−1.91, 26.63)
Computer/e-games in child’s bedroom 4.2% 11.34 (−28.46, 51.15) 4.2% 5.86 (−22.70, 34.41) 4.1% 17.37 (−9.11, 43.85) 3.7% 15.80 (−1.21, 32.81)
Neighbourhood playground suitability (e.g., equipment, shade, safety) 5.5 (4.4) −2.98 (−5.30, −0.66) 5.2 (4.4) −2.71 (−4.15, −1.28) 5.6 (4.2) −0.92 (−1.65, −0.19) 5.5 (4.5) −0.31 (−1.13, 0.52)
Neighbourhood constraints to active transport (e.g., busy roads) 4.9 (4.4) −1.46 (−3.19, 0.28) 4.8 (4.6) −2.06 (−3.50, −0.62) 5.0 (4.4) −0.65 (−1.28, −0.01) 5.0 (4.4) −0.42 (−1.34, 0.50)
Total frequency of visiting active places per week 6.5 (3.2) 0.64 (−1.58, 2.85) 5.9 (3.0) 0.24 (−2.62, 3.10) 6.4 (3.2) −0.77 (−1.90, 0.37) 5.9 (3.1) −0.35 (−1.60, 0.90)
  1. BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, e-games electronic games, PA physical activity, SB sedentary behaviour, TV television
  2. Notes: aAll models adjusted for age, preschool/childcare attendance and clustering by centre of recruitment; bReported as % for binary/categorical variables and mean (SD) for continuous variables; cDirectly measured height and weight, calculated using Cole et al. classifications; dParents’ self-reported height and weight, calculated using WHO classifications; eIncludes part- and full-time paid employment; fIn Australia, playgroups are informal gatherings for parents (and caregivers) and their children prior to the commencement of school; bolded data indicates significance (p < 0.05); indicates variable not included in combined model