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Table 1 Behaviour change techniques, target variables, intervention procedures materials and providers

From: A feasibility study with process evaluation of a preschool intervention to improve child and family lifestyle behaviours

Behaviour change technique Target Variable (IP: individual predictors; EF: environmental factors) Procedures, Materials and Providers
Goal setting IP: Outcome expectations, goals, self-efficacy
EF: Environmental cues, barriers, access
Formulation of specific plans of how to reduce unhealthy snacking; increase healthy breakfast consumption, reduce TV viewing and increase family active time. Led by parents or staff. Sessions 2–5
Prompt self-monitoring of behaviour IP: facilitate goal attainment, outcome expectations, self-efficacy After an introductory session with the staff, parents were asked to keep a record of their behaviour related to goals set for behaviour change. Sessions 1–6
Model/demonstrate behaviour IP: Skills, self-efficacy, expectations and beliefs
EF: Facilitate vicarious learning
Parents were asked to model/demonstrate ‘healthy’ behaviours, being active and less sedentary. Staff were asked to model/demonstrate to children, ‘healthy’ eating and physical activity behaviours. The preschools received skipping ropes and the families received Frisbees. Sessions 3–6
Prompt practice IP: Skills and knowledge
EF: Environmental cues, access
Staff were asked to encourage parents to rehearse and repeat behaviours around set goals. Parents received activity and information sheets with suggestions for healthy eating and physical activity to facilitate building new habits/routines at home. Sessions 3–6
Provide rewards contingent on successful behaviour
Social support
IP: Self-efficacy, Outcome expectations
EF: Environmental cues
Staff were asked to praise and encourage positive behaviour changes in parents and children. Parents were asked to encourage to praise their children. Children received periodic prizes contingent on participating in healthy eating behaviour and physical activity. Families were given reward charts to use at home The preschools celebrated success with parties/fun days. Sessions 1–6
Provide instruction on how to perform the behaviour
Social support
IP: Knowledge, skills
EF: environmental cues
Parents received instruction from staff and via information sheets (see Table 2) on how to engage in healthy eating and physical activity behaviour. Children received instruction from staff in relation to healthy eating and practiced active skills such as jumping, skipping etc. Sessions 1–6
Provide information
Social support
IP: Knowledge, skills
EF: Environmental cues, access
Parents received general information about the programme and more detailed nutritional and physical activity information in the form of leaflets and activity sheets. Children received information from staff appropriate for their level of understanding. Sessions 1–6
Set graded tasks IP Self efficacy, outcome expectations
EF: Barriers, access
Within the goal setting sessions, staff were asked to encourage parents to set small achievable behaviour change goals (SMART) building on past successes. Staff were asked to encourage children to build on their past successes through play and activities. Sessions 1–6
Provide information about others’
approval/behaviour
Social support
IP: Self-efficacy, outcome expectations
EF: Environmental cues
Parents were encouraged to set up a peer group to support each other throughout the intervention. The peer group aimed to forge social support and act as models of the behaviour. Parents were invited to share ideas/successes on specially designated intervention notice board. Children were encouraged to display pictures and photos of their families’ activities and behaviours. Children were encouraged by staff reinforce peers’ behaviours/achievements. Sessions 1–6
Prompt barrier identification
Coping/planning
IP: Self-efficacy, outcome expectations
EF: Environmental cues, barriers, access
In their monthly meeting with staff; parents were encouraged to think about personal potential barriers to behaviour change and to identify ways of overcoming them. Session 2
Relapse prevention/coping planning IP: Self –efficacy, goals Based on identification of barriers; parents and staff were encouraged to work together to suggest strategies to overcome barriers. Session 5