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Table 3 The 1993 cohort: crude and adjusted effects of cesarean section on fat mass index, BMI Z-score and height at age 18, overall and by sex. Adjusted effects obtained through linear regression. 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort, Brazil, 2011-12

From: Caesarean section and adiposity at 6, 18 and 30 years of age: results from three Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohorts

Type of delivery All (N = 3961) Males (N = 1965) Females (N = 1996)
Coeff. (CI 95%) Coeff. (CI 95%) Coeff. (CI 95%)
Fat mass index at age 18
 Crude effect p = 0.001 p < 0.001 p = 0.137
 C-section 0.45 (0.18; 0.72) 0.66 (0.36; 0.96) 0.26 (−0.08; 0.60)
 Adjusted (model 1)a p = 0.018 p = 0.009 p = 0.126
 C-section 0.34 (0.06; 0.62) 0.41 (0.10; 0.72) 0.28 (−0.08; 0.64)
 Adjusted (model 2)b p = 0.364 p = 0.106 p = 0.806
 C-section 0.13 (−0.15; 0.41) 0.25 (−0.05; 0.56) 0.04 (−0.30; 0.39)
 Adjusted (model 3)c p = 0.583 p = 0.123 p = 0.990
 C-section 0.08 (−0.20; 0.36) 0.24 (−0.07; 0.56) −0.01 (−0.35; 0.34)
BMI Z-score at age 18
 Crude effect p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p = 0.209
 C-section 0.17 (0.09; 0.25) 0.27 (0.15; 0.38) 0.07 (−0.04; 0.19)
 Adjusted (model 1)a p < 0.001 p = 0.001 p = 0.104
 C-section 0.15 (0.07; 0.24) 0.20 (0.08; 0.31) 0.10 (−0.02; 0.22)
 Adjusted (model 2)b p = 0.082 p = 0.049 p = 0.599
 C-section 0.07 (−0.01; 0.16) 0.11 (0.00; 0.23) 0.03 (−0.09; 0.15)
 Adjusted (model 3)c p = 0.163 p = 0.061 p = 0.840
 C-section 0.06 (−0.02; 0.14) 0.11 (−0.01; 0.23) 0.01 (−0.11; 0.13)
Height (cm) at age 18
 Crude effect p = 0.025 p = 0.293 p = 0.001
 C-section 0.70 (0.09; 1.32) 0.37 (−0.31;1.02) 1.04 (0.44;1.64)
 Adjusted (model 1)a p = 0.684 p = 0.267 p = 0.042
 C-section 0.13 (−0.50;0.76) −0.38 (−1.06;0.29) 0.64 (0.02; 1.27)
 Adjusted (model 2)b p = 0.613 p = 0.045 p = 0.196
 C-section −0.17 (−0.82; 0.48) −0.71 (−1.40; −0.02) 0.42 (−0.22; 1.05)
 Adjusted (model 3)c p = 0.932 p = 0.080 p = 0.130
 C-section −0.02 (−0.65; 0.59) −0.59 (−1.25; 0.07) 0.47 (−0.14; 1.09)
  1. aModel 1: adjusted for economic position at birth, maternal schooling, mother’s skin colour and financing of delivery
  2. bModel 2: model 1 + mother’s pre-gestational BMI (linear and quadratic), parity, mother’s age at birth and smoking during pregnancy
  3. cModel 3: model 2 + birth weight and birth length