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Table 2 The 2004 cohort: crude and adjusted effects of cesarean section on fat mass index, BMI Z-score and height at age 6, overall and by sex. Adjusted effects obtained through linear regression. 2004 Pelotas Birth Cohort, Brazil, 2010–11

From: Caesarean section and adiposity at 6, 18 and 30 years of age: results from three Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohorts

Type of delivery All (N = 3317) Males (N = 1708) Females (N = 1609)
Coeff. (CI 95%) Coeff. (CI 95%) Coeff. (CI 95%)
Fat mass index at age 6
 Crude effect p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001
 C-section 0.51 (0.34;0.68) 0.60 (0.38;0.82) 0.48 (0.23;0.73)
 Adjusted (model 1)a p = 0.002 p = 0.018 p = 0.008
 C-section 0.29 (0.11;0.47) 0.28 (0.05;0.52) 0.37 (0.09;0.64)
 Adjusted (model 2)b p = 0.277 p = 0.532 p = 0.167
 C-section 0.10 (−0.08;0.28) 0.07 (−0.16;0.31) 0.18 (−0.08;0.44)
 Adjusted (model 3)c p = 0.326 p = 0.574 p = 0.127
 C-section 0.09 (−0.09;0.27) 0.07 (−0.17;0.30) 0.20 (−0.06;0.46)
BMI Z-score at age 6
 Crude effect p < 0.001 p < 0.001 p < 0.001
 C-section 0.32 (0.22;0.42) 0.39 (0.25;0.53) 0.24 (0.11;0.38)
 Adjusted (model 1)a p < 0.001 p = 0.007 p = 0.011
 C-section 0.20 (0.10;0.31) 0.21 (0.06;0.37) 0.19 (0.04;0.33)
 Adjusted (model 2)b p = 0.083 p = 0.331 p = 0.166
 C-section 0.09 (−0.01;0.20) 0.08 (−0.08;0.23) 0.10 (−0.04;0.24)
 Adjusted (model 3)c p = 0.138 p = 0.567 p = 0.139
 C-section 0.08 (−0.03;0.18) 0.04 (−0.11;0.20) 0.11 (−0.03;0.24)
Height (cm) at age 6
 Crude effect p < 0.001 p = 0.001 p = 0.002
 C-section 0.92 (0.53;1.30) 0.88 (0.35;1.40) 0.88 (0.32;1.43)
 Adjusted (model 1)a p = 0.795 p = 0.839 p = 0.751
 C-section 0.05 (−0.35;0.46) −0.06 (−0.62;0.50) 0.10 (−0.50;0.69)
 Adjusted (model 2)b p = 0.161 p = 0.256 p = 0.253
 C-section −0.29 (−0.71;0.12) −0.33 (−0.90;0.24) −0.35 (−0.94;0.25)
 Adjusted (model 3)c p = 0.637 p = 0.391 p = 0.960
 C-section −0.10 (−0.49;0.30) −0.24 (−0.79;0.31) −0.02 (−0.60;0.57)
  1. aModel 1: adjusted for economic position at birth, maternal schooling, mother’s skin colour and financing of delivery
  2. bModel 2: model 1 + mother’s BMI three months after the birth (linear and quadratic), parity, mother’s age at birth and smoking during pregnancy
  3. cModel 3: model 2 + birth weight and birth length