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Table 2 Coding type of frame of news articles for deductive qualitative analysis

From: How does the media portray drinking water security in Indigenous communities in Canada? An analysis of Canadian newspaper coverage from 2000-2015

Framing category Sub-category Description Salient article examples
Focus Water Focus on water issues Title: Many natives drinking unsafe water.
Example: "Walkerton made the news across Canada," the National Chief of the Assembly of First Nations said.
Source: The Globe and Mail May 5, 2001.
  Other Mentions water issues but focuses on other challenges Title: Let the objections finally cease.
Example: No child can learn properly if the house she lives in is falling down, the family situation isn't stable and food and water are insufficient or unreliable.
Source: The Globe and Mail Mar 16, 2007.
Valence Positive Focus on solutions, or progress towards change Title: Natives shouldn't have to boil their water.
Example: This government will ensure that community leaders have what they need to deliver clean water to their residents.
Source: National Post Mar 23, 2006.
  Negative Focus on problems, lack of action, or blame Title: Natives deserve better.
Example: I’m absolutely disgusted to hear that tainted water continues to plague Canada’s First Nations Reserves.
Source: National Post Oct 29, 2005.
  Neutral Neither a positive nor a negative valence Title: Lessons from Kashechewan.
Example: In October, the story broke that the village's 1,900 Cree were drinking water polluted with E. coli.
Source: National Post Nov 21, 2005.
Episodic and thematic Episodic Focus on a specific event or topic, such as a waterborne outbreak or a new legislation Title: Ontario evacuating reserve.
Example: Ontario's minister for Aboriginal Affairs, David Ramsay, said the province will evacuate more than half of the residents of Kashechewan First Nation after the reserve's water supply tested positive for E. coli.
Source: National Post Oct 26, 2005.
  Thematic Focus on a theme, such as drinking water issues in general Title: Water on reserves a problem, group says.
Example: The drinking-water problems on Canada’s native reserves need to be addressed immediately, a roundtable on the subject concluded yesterday.
Source: The Globe and Mail July 18, 2001.
Content Substantive Use specific information Title: Clean water plan unveiled for reserves.
Example: 170 of 755 water treatment systems pose health hazards due to lack of training, maintenance and standards.
Source: Toronto Star Mar 22, 2006.
  Ambiguous Use vague information Title: Reserve conditions worsening, overhaul needed, feds told.
Example: The report found education, housing, child welfare and access to safe drinking water remain major problems on First Nations reserves.
Source: Toronto Star Jun 10, 2011.