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Table 4 Association between women social support factors and experiencing repeated episodes of IPV during pregnancy (n = 1,116, if no any other indication)

From: Social support and intimate partner violence during pregnancy among women attending antenatal care in Moshi Municipality, Northern Tanzania

Variable No. of women (% of total) Repeated episodes of violencea (prevalence in %) OR (95%CI) Model 1b Adj. OR (95% CI) Model 2c Adj. OR (95% CI)
Talking to family
Talks to family of origin      
 At least once a week 575 (51.1) 180 (31.3) 1.0   
 At least once a month 340 (30.5) 71 (20.9) 0.46 (0.31 – 0.68) 0.55 (0.38 – 0.80) 0.41 (0.23 – 0.73)
 Once a year or never 201 (18.0) 73 (36.3) 0.80 (0.57 – 1.12) -  
Talks to family of the partner
 At least once a week 522 (46.8) 155 (29.7) 1.0   
 At least once a month 349 (31.3) 80 (22.9) 0.52 (0.36 – 0.75) 0.80 (0.55 – 1.15) -
 Once a year or never 245 (22.0) 89 (36.3) 0.74 (0.54 – 1.02) -  
Perceived support from the family
Expects support from family of origin
 Yes 943 (84.4) 245 (26.0) 1.0   
 No 173 (15.5) 78 (45.1) 2.34 (1.67 – 3.26) 2.14 (1.38 – 3.31) 2.14 (1.23 – 3.74)
Expects support from family of the partner
 Yes 292 (26.2) 212 (25.7) 1.0   -
 No 824 (73.8) 112 (38.4) 1.80 (1.35 – 2.38) 1.47 (1.02 – 2.13) 1.12 (0.74 – 1.68)
Group support
Attends association or organization
 Yes 160 (14.3) 54 (33.8) 1.0 - -
 No 956 (85.7) 270 (28.2) 1.29 (0.91 – 1.85)   
Practical support
Has someone who cares that she gets enough foodd
 Yes 888 (79.8) 248 (27.9) 1.0   
 No 225 (20.2) 76 (33.8) 1.32 (0.96 – 1.80) - -
Has someone to help on daily tasksd
 Yes 649 (58.3) 192 (29.6) 1.0   
 No 464 (41.7) 132 (28.4) 0.95 (0.73 – 1.23) - -
Has someone to support during ANC visitsd
 Yes 871 (78.3) 239 (27.4) 1.0   
 No 242 (21.7) 85 (35.1) 1.43 (1.06 – 1.94) 0.94 (0.60 – 1.48) -
Has someone to help her financially when in needd
 Yes 1037 (93.2) 279 (26.9) 1.0   
 No 76 (6.8) 45 (59.2) 3.94 (2.45 – 6.36) 3.52 (2.16 – 5.74) 3.21 (1.69 – 6.11)
Emotional support
Has someone to share thoughts and worries withd
 Yes 1037 (93.3) 287 (27.7) 1.0   
 No 75 (6.7) 37 (49.3) 2.54 (1.59 – 4.08) 1.08 (0.39 – 2.98) -
Has someone to help in difficult decisionsd
 Yes 1036 (93.1) 290 (28.0) 1.0   
 No 77 (6.9) 34 (44.2) 2.03 (1.27 – 3.25) 0.99 (0.35 – 2.78) -
Has someone she can always trustd
 Yes 1049 (94.2) 296 (28.2) 1.0   
 No 64 (5.7) 28 (43.8) 1.98 (1.19 – 3.30) 1.31 (0.46 – 3.79) -
  1. a Experienced two or more episodes of abuse during the current pregnancy
  2. bModel 1 includes all factors with p value of <0.05 in the crude results
  3. cModel 2 includes additional adjustment for maternal age, level of education, occupation, unplanned pregnancy, any history of adverse pregnancy outcome and any alcohol consumption during pregnancy
  4. dNumbers do not add up to the total because of missing values