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Table 2 Demographic and reproductive health characteristics of the study participants, and the prevalence of exposure to IPV during pregnancy (n = 1,116, if no other indication)

From: Social support and intimate partner violence during pregnancy among women attending antenatal care in Moshi Municipality, Northern Tanzania

Characteristic No. of women (% of total) Emotional violence Physical violence Sexual violence At least one type of violence
No. of women (prevalence in %) P valuea No. of women (prevalence in %) P valuea No. of women (prevalence in %) P valuea No. of women (prevalence in %) P valuea
Age (in years)
 18–20 144 (12.9) 30 (11.8) 0.486 7 (10.0) 0.828 18 (10.5) 0.238 39 (11.6) 0.502
 21–25 374 (33.5) 79 (31.1) 22 (31.4) 53 (31.0) 105 (31.1)
 26–30 310 (27.8) 82 (32.3) 19 (27.1) 44 (25.7) 102 (30.3)
 31–35 167 (15.0) 36 (14.2) 13 (18.6) 33 (19.3) 50 (14.8)
 36 and above 121 (10.8) 27 (10.6) 9 (12.9) 23 (13.5) 41 (12.2)
Education level completed
 Primary 676 (60.6) 149 (58.7) 0.737 44 (62.9) 0.771 108 (63.2) 0.575 207 (61.4) 0.871
 Secondary 390 (34.9) 92 (36.2) 24 (34.3) 54 (31.6) 114 (33.8)
 Above secondary 50 (4.5) 13 (5.1) 2 (2.8) 9 (5.2) 16 (4.8)
Occupation
 Employed 179 (16.0) 40 (15.7) 0.026 10 (14.3) 0.345 28 (16.4) 0.189 56 (16.6) 0.009
 Self-employed 512 (45.9) 134 (52.8) 38 (54.3) 88 (51.5) 175 (51.9)
 Unemployed 425 (38.1) 80 (31.5) 22 (31.4) 55 (32.1) 106 (31.5)
Parity
 0 429 (38.4) 83 (32.7) 0.072 18 (25.7) 0.053 63 (36.8) 0.892 115 (34.1) 0.068
 1–2 533 (47.8) 129 (50.8) 38 (54.3) 84 (49.1) 166 (49.3)
 3 or more 154 (13.8) 42 (16.5) 14 (20.0) 24 (14.1) 56 (16.6)
Index pregnancy planned?
 Yes 849 (76.1) 179 (70.5) 0.017 54 (77.1) 0.826 129 (75.4) 0.846 247 (73.3) 0.169
 No 267 (23.9) 75 (29.5) 16 (22.9) 42 (24.6) 90 (26.7)
Any history of adverse pregnancy outcomeb (n = 674)
 No 166 (24.6) 124 (73.4) 0.536 35 (67.3) 0.180 70 (67.3) 0.047 151 (69.3) 0.011
 Yes 508 (75.4) 45 (26.6) 17 (32.7) 34 (32.7) 67 (30.7)
Any alcohol consumption during pregnancy
 Yes 123 (11.0) 42 (16.5) 0.001 22 (31.4) <0.001 26 (15.2) 0.058 56 (16.6) <0.001
 No 993 (89.0) 212 (83.5) 48 (68.6) 145 (84.8) 281 (83.4)
  1. aResults of chi-square test of statistical difference on the proportional distribution of exposure to violence
  2. bWomen who had a previous pregnancy that ended as miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm birth and/or low birth weight baby