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Table 5 Significant differences among the stages of change and the psychosocial testing determinants

From: Psychosocial determinants of HIV testing across stages of change in Spanish population: a cross-sectional national survey

  Decision not to act Decision to act Action Maintenance Abandonment
Lack of awareness + Underestimation of HIV risk*** + Perceived HIV risk* - Stereotypes*** + Perceived HIV risk*** + Social proximity test***
+ Stereotypes*** - Stereotypes* - Perceived mortality** - Stereotypes* + Instrumental attitude*
+ Perceived mortality + Social proximity test*** + Social proximity test*** + Social proximity test***  
- Self-efficacy test***   + Self-efficacy test*** + Self-efficacy test***  
- Motivation referents***   + Instrumental attitude*** + Self-efficacy diagnosis*  
- Benefits of test***   + Emotional attitude** + Social proximity test  
    + Instrumental attitude*  
Decision not to act   - Underestimation of HIV risk*** - Underestimation of HIV risk*** + Perceived HIV risk** - Stereotypes**
  - Stereotypes*** - Stereotypes*** - Underestimation of HIV risk** + Self-efficacy test***
  + Self-efficacy test* - Perceived mortality - Stereotypes*** + Social proximity test***
  + Social proximity test*** + Perceived stigma** + Self-efficacy test*** + Motivation referents*
  + Benefits test*** + Self-efficacy test*** + Self-efficacy diagnosis* + Benefits test**
  + Instrumental attitude** + Social proximity test*** + Social proximity test*** + Instrumental attitude**
  + Emotional attitude* + Motivation referents*** + Motivation referents***  
   + Benefits test*** + Benefits test***  
   + Instrumental attitude*** + Instrumental attitude***  
   + Emotional attitude** + Emotional attitude*  
Decision to act    + Self-efficacy test** + Self-efficacy test**  
   + Social proximity test*** + Social proximity test***  
Action     + Perceived HIV risk**  
     + Social proximity test***  
Maintenance      - Social proximity test***
  1. HSD Tukey: *p < .05; ** p < .01; *** p < .001. + The score in the variable is higher at the stage in the column than at the stage in the row. - The score in the variable is lower at the stage in the column than at the stage in the row
  2. Stereotypes: invulnerability associated with stereotypes. Self-efficacy test: self-efficacy to undergo testing; Self-efficacy diagnosis: self-efficacy to deal with a positive HIV diagnosis. Motivation referents: motivation to be tested if so requested by reference people. Social proximity test: social proximity to HIV-tested people. Benefits test: perceived benefits of being tested