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Table 1 Psychosocial determinants, items used in the survey to measure each determinant, and response percentages in the total sample surveyed

From: Psychosocial determinants of HIV testing across stages of change in Spanish population: a cross-sectional national survey

Psychosocial determinant Item summarised Percent 95% CI Variance Skewness Kurtosis
Perceived risk Thinks that he/she could become infected with HIV1 9.2ª [7.7, 10.7] 0.47 1.01 2.34
Underestimation of risk of infection (unrealistic optimism) Thinks he/she is less likely to become infected by HIV than the average of the population1 53.8b [51.3,56.3] 1.01 0.18 -1.01
Knowledge about HIV sexual transmission Considers that it is likely to become infected by HIV through sexual intercourse if condoms are not used 90.5ª [89, 92] 0.45 -0.76 0.15
Invulnerability associated with stereotypes Does not think he/she can become infected because only certain groups of people have HIV1 41.7b [39.2,44.2] 0.87 0.52 -0.84
Perceived threat Would feel afraid if he/she received a positive diagnosis1 81.9b [79.2, 83.2] 0.41 -0.65 -0.53
Perceived severity AIDS is a deadly disease1 39b [36.5,41.5] 0.92 0.51 -0.85
  AIDS is a very serious disease1 81.8b [79.8, 83.8] 0.55 -0.48 -0.33
Perceived stigma People with HIV are highly rejected in society1 78.9b [76.8,81] 0.69 -0.55 -0.25
Self-efficacy Perceived ability to be tested1 87.9c [86.2, 89.6] 0.43 -1.67 2.72
  Perceived ability to deal with a positive result1 76.4c [74.2, 78.6] 0.70 -0.78 0.22
Social proximity Has people nearby who have been tested1 9.4d [7.9, 10.9] 0.60 0.97 0.53
Motivation to comply with referents Would be tested if asked to by reference persons1 95.7b [94.7, 96.7] 0.24 -2.63 6.29
Perceived benefits of knowing a positive diagnosis Receiving treatment as soon as possible and controlling the disease1 99b [98.5, 99.5] 0.02 -5.95 34.3
  Protecting the partner and preventing transmission1 99.1b [98.6, 99.6] 0.02 -5.95 34.3
  Having information about the diagnosis would relieve you about your health status1 94.3b [93.1, 95.5] 0.09 -2.57 4.76
Instrumental attitude (M ± SD) Considers it harmful-beneficial to be tested2 8.14 ± 2.56   3.51 -2.24 6.25
  Considers it useless-useful to be tested2 8.52 ± 2.56   1.34 -2.27 4.49
Emotional attitude (M ± SD) Considers it unpleasant-pleasant to be tested2 4.44 ± 3.63   12.48 -0.12 -1.14
  Considers it stressful-relaxing to be tested2 4.02 ± 3.57   11.84 0.38 -0.94
  1. Data provided in percentages, except where specified. CI confidence interval. N number of items. 1Items have a 4-point response range. 2Items have a range of 10 points
  2. aPercentage of people responding “fairly likely”/“very likely”. b Percentage of people responding “agree somewhat” or “totally agree”. c Percentage of people responding “fairly capable” or “very capable”. d Percentage of people responding “quite a lot” or “many”