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Table 4 Determinants of the positivity of HIV exposed infant’s HIV test

From: Vertical HIV transmission in perinatally-exposed infants in South-Rift region of Kenya: a retrospective cross sectional study

Variable name OR [95% CI] p value OR [95% CI] p value
Infant age at diagnosis n = 2624
 i. ≤ 6 weeks 1 (Ref)   1 (Ref)  
 ii. >6 weeks – 9 Months 1.48 [1.09–2.01] 0.012** 1.54 [1.03–2.31] 0.037**
 iii. >9 Months 4.60 [3.15–6.73] <0.001** 3.61 [1.80–7.23] <0.001**
Infants’ sex
 Female 1 (Ref)    
 Male 1.22 [0.93–1.60] 0.152* 1.16 [0.841.59] 0.368*
Maternal prophylaxis n = 2244
 Any form of antiretroviral prophylaxis 1 (Ref)   1(Ref)  
 No antiretroviral prophylaxis 4.4 [3.2–6.0] <0.001** 2.9 [2.0–4.1] <0.001**
Maternal antiretroviral regimen (type) n = 2244
 i. None (did not receive ARVs) 1 (Ref)   1(Ref)  
 ii. HAART 0.20 [0.14–0.29] <0.001** 0.30 [0.19–0.47] <0.001**
 iii. Interrupted HAART 0.15 [0.06–0.35] <0.001** 0.27 [0.11–0.67] 0.003**
 iv. AZT + (3TC + sd-NVP at labour) + (AZT + 3TC for 7 days) 0.23 [0.15–0.34] <0.001** 0.41 [0.26–0.65] <0.001**
 v. SdNVP 0.06 [0.01–0.47] 0.007** 1  
 vi. Others 0.37 [0.24–0.58] <0.001** 0.49 [0.29–0.82] 0.005**
Mode of infant feeding
 Infants ≤ 6 months n=
  Exclusive replacement feeding 1 (Ref)   1 (Ref)  
  Exclusive breastfeeding 1.28 [0.69–2.38] 0.4* 1.27 [0.68–2.38] 0.456*
  Mixed feeding 2.75 [1.32–5.70] 0.007** 1.73[0.81–3.7] 0.158*
Infants >6 months
  Not breastfed 1 (Ref)    
  Breast fed 2.3 [1.3–4.0] 0.006** 1.87 [1.02–3.44] 0.043**
  1. Ref reference category, OR Odds ratio, aOR Adjusted Odds ratio
  2. * = Not significant (p > 0.05), ** = Significant (p <0.05), [95% CI] : 95% Confidence interval