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Table 3 Multivariable association of sociodemographic characteristics and sexual and reproductive history with presence of cervical lesions

From: Screening, prevalence, and risk factors for cervical lesions among HIV positive and HIV negative women in Swaziland

Variables Age-adjusted
OR (95% confidence interval)a
Fully adjusted
OR (95% confidence interval)b
HIV status
 Positive 5.24 (2.31–11.88) 4.06 (1.61–10.25)
 Negative Referent Referent
Age
 <30   2.33 (0.88–6.10)
 ≥30   Referent
Had previous cervical exam
 Yes 2.09 (0.99–4.41) 2.53 (1.06–6.05)
 No Referent Referent
Marital status
 Married/Cohabiting Referent Referent
 Widowed/Single 1.01 (0.48–2.09) 0.83 (0.37–1.90)
Monthly income (1US = 10E)
 <E500 or None Referent Referent
 E500–1200 1.77 (0.72–4.33) 0.78 (0.19–3.14)
 >E1201 1.11 (0.46–2.68) 0.75 (0.19–2.93)
Highest educational level
 Primary/No School Referent Referent
 Secondary 1.50 (0.57–3.93) 2.47 (0.84–7.31)
 Tertiary 0.45 (0.11–1.91) 1.11 (0.20–6.34)
Employment status
 Employed/Self/Partially 2.33 (0.99–5.47) 3.12 (0.81–12.11)
 Unemployed/Student Referent Referent
Age at first sexual intercourse
 ≤17 2.30 (0.28–18.81) 0.85 (0.08–9.65)
 18–23 1.65 (0.20–13.44) 0.69 (0.06–7.50)
 ≥24 Referent Referent
Number of lifetime sexual partners
 1 Referent Referent
 ≥2 3.00 (1.02–8.85) 2.42 (0.65–9.08)
History of any of the following STIs
 Warts, Gonorrhea, Syphilis, Herpes 2.16 (1.04–4.50) 1.42 (0.63–3.22)
 No Referent Referent
Condom use
 Not used Referent Referent
 Sometimes/most times/Non-regular partner only 1.61 (0.56–4.64) 1.11 (0.34–3.64)
 100% of the time 1.11 (0.33–3.78) 0.76 (0.20–2.96)
  1. aOdds Ratio (OR) for each socio-demographic and reproductive variable adjusted for age
  2. bFully adjusted model including all socio-demographic and reproductive variables
  3. The boldface odds ratios are significant