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Table 1 Sociodemographic variables by HIV status and visual inspection by acetic acid (VIA) results

From: Screening, prevalence, and risk factors for cervical lesions among HIV positive and HIV negative women in Swaziland

  HIV positive
N = 112
HIV negative
N = 161
p-value VIA positive
N = 35
VIA negative
N = 236
p-value
N (%) N (%) N (%) N (%)
Age
 <30 32 (28.6) 65 (40.4) 0.04 11 (31.4) 75 (31.8) 0.97
 ≥30 80 (71.4) 94 (59.6) 24 (68.6) 161 (68.2)
Region
 Hhohho 41 (36.6) 67 (42.4) 0.77 18 (51.4) 92 (39.5) 0.11
 Lubombo 3 (2.7) 4 (2.5) 2 (5.7) 5 (2.1)
 Manzini 56 (50.0) 69 (43.7) 14 (40.0) 106 (45.5)
 Shiselwenni 12 (10.7) 18 (11.4) 1 (2.9) 30 (12.9)
Had previous cervical exam
 Yes 34 (30.6) 48 (30.2) 0.94 15 (42.9) 65 (27.9) 0.08
 No 77 (69.4) 111 (69.8) 20 (57.1) 168 (72.1)
Marital Status
 Married/Cohabiting 48 (42.9) 74 (46) 0.61 15 (42.8) 106 (44.9) 0.82
 Widowed/Single/Separated 64 (57.1) 87 (54) 20 (57.1) 130 (55.1)
Monthly income (1US = 10E)
 <E500 or None 38 (33.9) 61 (38.1) 0.03 11 (31.4) 88 (37.5) 0.43
 E500–1200 38 (33.9) 32 (20) 12 (34.3) 56 (23.8)
 >E1201 36 (32.1) 67 (41.9) 12 (34.3) 91 (38.7)
Highest educational level
 Primary/No school 33 (29.5) 25 (15.5) <0.01 6 (17.1) 50 (21.2) 0.08
 Secondary 70 (62.5) 90 (55.9) 26 (74.3) 134 (56.8)
 Tertiary 9 (8) 46 (28.6) 3 (8.6) 52 (22.0)
Employment status
 Employed/Self-employed/Partially 75 (67) 93 (59.2) 0.20 26 (74.3) 140 (60.3) 0.12
 Unemployed/Student 37 (33) 64 (40.8) 9 (25.7) 92 (39.7)
Occupation
 Laborer 31 (38.7) 35 (32.7) 0.68 12 (44.4) 52 (32.7) 0.13
 Skilled worker/Clerical 29 (36.3) 44 (41.1) 6 (22.2) 67 (42.1)
 Professional 20 (25) 28 (26.2) 9 (33.3) 40 (25.2)
Religion
 Christian 109 (97.3) 157 (98.7) 0.40 35 (100) 229 (97.9) 1.00
 Other (Traditional, Muslim, None) 3 (2.7) 2 (1.3) 0 (0) 5 (2.1)
Smoking status
 Never smoked 106 (94.6) 157 (97.5) 0.22 35 (100) 226 (95.8) 0.37
 Former/Current smoker 6 (5.4) 4 (2.5) 0 (0) 10 (4.2)
Drink alcohol?
 Yes 12 (10.9) 11 (6.9) 0.25 4 (11.8) 19 (8.2) 0.51
 No 98 (89.1) 148 (93.1) 30 (88.2) 214 (91.8)
  1. Numbers may not always add up to total number due to missing responses. VIA data were available for 271 women but HIV status was not available for 3 of these women
  2. Significant at p<0.05 are in bold