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Table 2 Prevalence (%) of risk factors, by sex and age group

From: Cardiometabolic risk in a population of older adults with multiple co-morbidities in rural south africa: the HAALSI (Health and Aging in Africa: longitudinal studies of INDEPTH communities) study

  ALL Male Female  
Total Male 40–44 45–54 55–64 65+ p-value trend (Male) Total Female 40–44 45–54 55–64 65+ p-value trend (Female) p-value (Overall Men vs women)
Hypertensiona 58.4 54.5 34.6 42.2 56.9 64.8 <0.001* 61.8 34.6 52.9 65.3 72.0 <0.001* <0.001
Total Diabetesb 11.1 10.1 4.6 8.2 10.1 12.6 0.001* 11.9 4.7 8.7 12.8 15.3 <0.001* 0.048
Self-Report Diabetes 6.7 6.2 1.7 4.5 5.9 8.6 <0.001* 7.1 1.8 4.5 8.3 9.3 <0.001* 0.227
RBG ≥ 11.1 mmol/L 5.5 4.7 1.4 3.9 5.2 5.5 0.044* 6.3 2.4 4.6 5.9 8.5 <0.001* 0.017
Reports diabetes medication use 4.9 4.5 1.7 3.3 4.4 5.9 0.013* 5.3 1.1 3.3 6.6 6.8 <0.001* 0.194
Total Dyslipidemiac 43.6 44.8 45.2 50.5 47.5 40.2 0.003* 42.7 41.6 39.8 49.1 40.3 0.002* 0.160
High Total Cholesterol ≥ 6.21 mmol/L 6.6 4.12 3.3 2.9 3.9 5.2 0.291 8.5 4.7 5.9 11.0 9.3 0.002* <0.001
Low HDL < 1.19 mmol/L 26.5 31.3 35.0 38.4 30.7 27.5 0.001* 22.5 28.3 22.7 24.6 19.2 0.009* <0.001
High LDL > 4.1 mmol/L 3.7 2.1 2.5 1.2 1.9 2.6 0.458 4.9 3.2 3.9 6.5 5.0 0.136 <0.001
Hypertriglyceridemia > 2.25 mmol/L 21.2 20.4 17.9 23.1 22.3 18.4 0.136 21.7 16.5 18.5 26.0 22.2 0.003* 0.311
BMI [45]  
Underweight: < 18.5 6.7 10.1 10.0 10.9 10.6 9.2 --- 3.7 2.3 2.5 4.0 4.6 --- <0.001
Normal: 18.5–24.9 35.4 45.9 51.3 45.0 45.4 45.3 --- 26.4 26.3 24.4 21.8 31.1 --- <0.001
Overweight: 25.0–29.9 27.9 27.8 29.1 26.1 26.7 29.2 --- 28.1 28.6 26.7 28.8 28.5 --- 0.790
Obese Grade I: 30.0–34.9 17.7 11.8 6.9 12.6 12.8 12.1 --- 22.7 23.7 23.0 25.7 20.0 --- <0.001
Obese Grade II: 35.0–39.9 7.4 2.8 2.2 3.0 2.9 2.9 --- 11.3 12.6 12.9 10.4 10.5 --- <0.001
Extreme Obesity: ≥ 40 4.9 1.5 0.4 2.4 1.6 1.3 --- 7.8 5.9 10.6 9.3 5.3 --- <0.001
Waist-Hip Ratio [46] 67.9 61.6 40.9 55.8 66.7 66.7 <0.001* 73.4 62.3 71.2 75.6 76.3 <0.001* <0.001
hsCRP Risk Category [25]
Low (<1 mg/L) 19.2 21.7 23.4 22.9 21.3 20.9 --- 17.0 16.2 19.24= 15.6 16.9 --- <0.001
Intermediate (1–3 mg/L) 42.4 42.9 43.2 44.6 43.7 41.6 --- 42.0 47.0 38.7 42.6 42.4 --- 0.517
High (>3 mg/L) 38.4 35.4 33.3 32.5 35.0 37.5 --- 41.0 36.8 42.1 41.8 40.7 --- <0.001
  1. aSystolic Blood Pressure ≥ 140 mmHg or Diastolic Blood Pressure ≥ 90 mmHg or Self-reported use of medication.
  2. bSelf-report or Random Blood Glucose (RBG) ≥ 11.1 mmol/L or Self-reported use of medication.
  3. cTotal cholesterol ≥ 6.21 mmol/L or low-density lipoprotein (LDL) > 4.1 mmol/L or high-density lipoprotein (HDL) < 1.19 mmol/L or Triglycerides > 2.25 mmol/L or Self-reported use of medication (n = 8).
  4. *Statistically significant at α = 0.05