Skip to main content

Table 2 Prevalence of diarrhea and appropriate treatment by independent variables and unadjusted odds ratios in Nyanza, Kenya

From: Community unit performance: factors associated with childhood diarrhea and appropriate treatment in Nyanza Province, Kenya

Individual variables for both analyses Experienced diarrhea within the previous 2 weeks Appropriate treatment
No
n (%)
Yes
n (%)
Unadjusted odds ratio Inappropriate
n (%)
Appropriate
n (%)
Unadjusted odds ratio
Child’s gender
  Female 2102 (86.1) 339 (13.9) Ref. 213 (64.0) 120 (36.0) Ref.
  Male 2072 (82.4) 442 (17.6) 1.390*** 268 (61.1) 171 (39.0) 1.058
Child’s age (years)
   < 1 767 (79.2) 202 (20.9) Ref. 126 (62.4) 76 (37.6) Ref.
  1 647 (75.0) 216 (25.0) 1.259* 124 (58.2) 89 (41.8) 1.132
  2 849 (83.5) 168 (16.5) 0.722** 109 (66.1) 56 (33.9) 0.768
  3 984 (90.0) 109 (10.0) 0.375*** 64 (59.3) 44 (40.7) 1.131
  4 927 (91.5) 86 (8.5) 0.350*** 58 (69.1) 26 (31.0) 0.601
Relationship to household head
  Biological child 3294 (84.2) 618 (15.8) Ref. 386 (63.1) 226 (36.9) Ref.
  Grandchild 745 (85.4) 127 (14.6) 0.840 74 (59.7) 50 (40.3) 1.158
  Other 135 (79.0) 36 (21.1) 1.376 21 (58.3) 15 (41.7) 1.123
Household head’s gender
  Female 1,039 (84.1) 197 (15.9) Ref. 118 (61.8) 73 (38.2) Ref.
  Male 3,135 (84.3) 584 (15.7) 1.030 363 (62.5) 218 (37.5) 1.019
Age group (years)
   < 30 1101 (80.4) 269 (19.6) Ref. 172 (64.9) 93 (35.1) Ref.
  30–34 788 (84.4) 146 (15.6) 0.767*** 87 (59.6) 59 (40.4) 1.276
  35–39 700 (86.0) 114 (14.0) 0.642*** 67 (59.8) 45 (40.2) 1.433
  40–49 750 (87.4) 108 (12.6) 0.612*** 66 (62.9) 39 (37.1) 1.034
   ≥ 50 835 (85.3) 144 (14.7) 0.681*** 89 (61.8) 55 (38.2) 1.147
Education level
  No education/Primary level 2829 (83.5) 561 (16.6) Ref. 342 (62.0) 210 (38.0) Ref.
  Secondary level or higher 1345 (85.9) 220 (14.1) 0.862 139 (63.2) 81 (36.8) 0.913
Household wealth index
  Poorer 985 (84.0) 188 (16.0) Ref. 123 (67.2) 60 (32.8) Ref.
  Poor 868 (83.7) 169 (16.3) 1.054 105 (62.5) 63 (37.5) 1.174
  Middle 855 (85.0) 151 (15.0) 0.960 85 (56.3) 66 (43.7) 1.644*
  Rich 802 (85.6) 135 (14.4) 0.906 80 (60.6) 52 (39.4) 1.377
  Richer 664 (82.8) 138 (17.2) 1.062 88 (63.8) 50 (36.2) 1.075
Number of household members
  5 or fewer than 5 2002 (83.2) 404 (16.8) Ref. 253 (63.3) 147 (36.8) Ref.
  More than 5 2172 (85.2) 377 (14.8) 0.824* 228 (61.3) 144 (38.7) 1.111
Number of children under five
  One 1340 (86.3) 213 (13.7) Ref. 135 (64.6) 74 (35.4) Ref.
  More than 1 2834 (83.3) 568 (16.7) 1.203* 346 (61.5) 217 (38.5) 1.190
Paying attention to the child
  Less attention 2316 (83.3) 464 (16.7) Ref. 278 (60.4) 182 (39.6) Ref.
  More attention 1858 (85.4) 317 (14.6) 0.844* 203 (65.1) 109 (34.9) 0.892
Playing with the child in the past three days
  No playing 858 (84.8) 154 (15.2) Ref. 102 (68.5) 47 (31.5) Ref.
  Playing at least once within the past 3 days 3316 (84.1) 627 (15.9) 1.028 379 (60.8) 244 (39.2) 1.233
Individual Variables for the first analysis on diarrhea cases
Water source for drinking
  Unimproved 2057 (84.1) 388 (15.9) Ref.    
  Improved 2117 (84.3) 393 (15.7) 0.974    
Water treatment
  No treatment/Inadequate 1839 (83.0) 378 (17.1) Ref.    
  Adequate treatment 2335 (85.3) 403 (14.7) 0.820*    
Hand-washing facility
  Not available 4045 (84.1) 764 (15.9) Ref.    
  Available 129 (88.4) 17 (11.6) 0.620    
Possession of refrigerator
  No 4096 (84.1) 772 (15.9) Ref.    
  Yes 78 (89.7) 9 (10.3) 0.491    
Individual Variables for the second analysis on appropriate treatment
Severity of diarrhea
  Without blood     437 (64.9) 236 (35.1) Ref.
  With blood     44 (44.4) 55 (55.6) 2.538***
Possession of at least one media device
  No     47 (58.8) 33 (41.3) Ref.
  Yes     434 (62.7) 258 (37.3) 0.809
Community Variables for the two analyses
Area
  Urban 402 (79.6) 103 (20.4) Ref. 66 (65.4) 35 (34.7) Ref.
  Rural 3772 (84.8) 678 (15.2) 0.753* 415 (61.9) 256 (38.2) 1.195
Performance of CHWs in the CU
  None/Poor (Number of CHWs and CUs) 2263 (85.8) 376 (14.3) Ref. 248 (67.0) 122 (33.0) Ref.
  Middle 1244 (83.9) 239 (16.1) 1.194 141 (59.5) 96 (40.5) 1.651**
  High 667 (80.1) 166 (19.9) 1.453** 92 (55.8) 73 (44.2) 1.841**
  1. * ≤ 0.05 ** ≤ 0.01 *** ≤ 0.001