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Table 4 Changes from baseline to follow-up for students in Forms 1 through 3

From: Participatory science and innovation for improved sanitation and hygiene: process and outcome evaluation of project SHINE, a school-based intervention in Rural Tanzania

  Baseline (Mean, SD)a Follow-up (Mean, SD) Difference p c
Knowledge, Attitudes & Practices
 Knowledge: hygiene b 6.07 (1.59) 6.03 (1.57) t(1,1662) = 0.5 0.614
 Perceived severity of worm infection 3.56 (1.36) 3.63 (1.36) t(1,1642) = −0.9 0.330
 Perceived importance of washing 2.03 (0.99) 2.15 (1.19) t(1,1657) = −2.3 0.021
 Frequency of washing 3.91 (0.87) 3.85 (0.91) t(1,1672) = 1.2 0.224
 Frequency of unhygienic behaviour 4.50 (0.73) 4.37 (0.81) t(1,1651) = 3.6 <0.001
Self-efficacy
 Self-efficacy to wash 4.32 (1.01) 4.27 (1.00) t(1,1647) = 0.9 0.347
 Intention to wash 4.37 (0.99) 4.36 (0.98) t(1,1652) = 0.3 0.759
 Intention to use toilet 3.78 (1.52) 4.01 (1.42) t(1,1635 = −3.0 0.003
Science interest and motivation
 Pros towards science 4.62 (0.58) 4.60 (0.64) t(1,1667) = 0.7 0.504
 Cons towards science 2.04 (1.06) 2.20 (1.15) t(1,1651) = −2.9 0.003
Communication
 Communication: hygiene 4.11 (0.80) 4.08 (0.84) t(1,1658) = 0.6 0.547
 Student Engagement Classroom 4.39 (0.91) 4.40 (0.90) t(1,1667) = 0.2 0.842
 Student Engagement Community 3.96 (1.13) 4.15 (1.06) t(1,1661) = −3.6 <0.001
  1. a Mean scores from a 5 point Likert scale with 5 indicating higher agreement
  2. b Variable dichotomised and summed for an 8 point scale
  3. c Statistically significant values (<0.05) are in bold