Skip to main content

Table 2 Bivariable and multivariable GEE analyses of reporting health problems associated with crack smoking among crack smokers in Vancouver, Canada (n = 1718)

From: Declining rates of health problems associated with crack smoking during the expansion of crack pipe distribution in Vancouver, Canada

Characteristic Unadjusted Adjusted
  Odds Ratio
(95% CI)
p-value Odds Ratio
(95% CI)
p-value
Source
Health service point only vs. Other sources only 0.70 (0.63–0.79) <0.001 0.82 (0.73–0.93) <0.001
A mix of health source points and other sources vs. Other sources only 1.23 (1.06–1.43) 0.006 1.17 (1.00–1.36) 0.051
Age
(per year older) 0.97 (0.96–0.98) <0.001 0.99 (0.98–0.99) 0.002
Sex
(female vs. male) 1.37 (1.20–1.56) <0.001 1.31 (1.15–1.50) <0.001
Ethnicity
(Caucasian vs. other) 1.00 (0.88–1.14) 0.994   
Less than high school diploma achieved
(yes vs. no) 0.99 (0.87–1.13) 0.923   
DTES residencya
(yes vs. no) 1.24 (1.11–1.40) <0.001 1.09 (0.96–1.22) 0.178
Homelessnessa
(yes vs. no) 1.34 (1.22–1.48) <0.001   
Daily non-injection crack smokinga
(yes vs. no) 1.68 (1.53–1.84) <0.001 1.29 (1.16–1.42) <0.001
Daily non-injection meth usea
(yes vs. no) 1.14 (0.72–1.81) 0.582   
Binge non-injection drug usea
(yes vs. no) 1.64 (1.51–1.79) <0.001 1.53 (1.40–1.67) <0.001
Shared crack pipe a
(yes vs. no) 2.07 (1.88–2.28) <0.001 1.73 (1.56–1.91) <0.001
Rushed public crack smokinga
(yes vs. no) 1.86 (1.66–2.08) <0.001   
Drug dealinga
(yes vs. no) 1.66 (1.50–1.83) <0.001 1.25 (1.12–1.39) <0.001
Sex worka
(yes vs. no) 1.95 (1.70–2.23) <0.001   
A victim of violencea
(yes vs. no) 1.69 (1.52–1.88) <0.001 1.47 (1.31–1.64) <0.001
Incarcerationa
(yes vs. no) 1.56 (1.37–1.77) <0.001   
HIV positive
(yes vs. no) 1.06 (0.93–1.21) 0.359   
  1. GEE generalized estimating equations, PWID People who inject drugs, CI confidence interval, DTES Downtown Eastside
  2. a Denotes activities in the previous 6 months