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Table 2 Mortality rate ratios by injury type and severity for injury-related hospitalisations of individuals aged 18+ years and matched non-injured comparison cohort within the 12 months post the index injury date, linked hospitalisation and mortality data in Australia

From: Higher mortality risk among injured individuals in a population-based matched cohort study

  Injured
No. deaths
Non-injured
No. deaths
Unadjusted mortality rate ratio 95%CI Adjusted mortality rate ratioa,b 95%CI Adjusted attributable risk%a,b
Mortality
 Within 30 days 3015 205 15.07* 13.06–17.39 12.13* 10.29–14.29 92
 Within 3 months 5327 659 8.69* 7.99–9.45 6.31* 5.75–6.93 84
 Within 6 months 7471 1368 6.00* 5.65–6.37 4.27* 4.00–4.57 77
 Within 12 months 10,638 2970 4.07* 3.89–4.24 2.90* 2.76–3.04 66
Injury type
 Fracture 5005 1504 3.90* 3.67–4.15 2.80* 2.61–3.01 64
 Hip fracture 2390 581 5.34* 4.82–5.91 3.67* 3.27–4.12 73
 Open wound 1312 417 3.53* 3.14–3.97 2.57* 2.25–2.93 61
 Injury to internal organs 991 141 9.48* 7.74–11.60 7.38* 5.90–9.22 86
 Traumatic brain injury 870 119 10.22* 8.18–12.77 7.58* 5.92–9.70 87
 Superficial injuries 797 267 3.27* 2.83–3.78 2.21* 1.87–2.60 55
 Poisoning by drugs, medicaments and biological substances 479 50 10.56* 7.78–14.34 6.06* 3.93–9.33 83
 Burns 69 12 5.75* 3.12–10.61 4.06* 1.71–9.63 75
 Injury to nerves and spinal cord 32 15 2.07** 1.12–3.83 1.93 0.88–4.24 48
 All other and unspecified injuries 1953 564 3.99* 3.61–4.41 2.76* 2.47–3.08 64
Injury severity score (ICISS range)
 Minor (≥0.99) 1427 597 2.57* 2.33–2.84 1.82* 1.62–2.05 45
 Moderate (0.942- < 0.99) 4179 1277 3.68* 3.44–3.93 2.54* 2.35–2.73 61
 Serious (<0.942) 5032 1096 5.85* 5.43–6.29 4.17* 3.85–4.52 76
Age group
 18–24 94 7 13.43* 6.23–28.93 28.08* 7.66–103.00 96
 25–34 168 8 21.00* 10.33–46.68 25.59* 8.33–78.63 96
 35–44 245 23 10.65* 6.95–16.33 7.18* 4.06–12.71 86
 45–54 333 56 6.07* 4.56–8.07 4.63* 3.11–6.88 78
 55–64 473 69 6.87* 5.33–8.84 5.00* 3.45–7.25 80
 65–74 989 186 5.56* 4.74–6.53 2.89* 2.36–3.53 65
 75–84 3056 727 4.84* 4.44–5.28 3.16* 2.87–3.49 68
 85+ 5280 1894 3.35* 3.16–3.54 2.58* 2.42–2.75 61
  1. *p < 0.0001; **p < 0.02
  2. aAdjusted for age group, sex, urban status, number of Charlson comorbidities (i.e. 0, 1–2 or ≥3), alcohol use and dependence, mental health conditions, drug-related dependence and the log of pre-injury cumulative hospital LOS. bAge group analyses adjusted for sex, urban status, number of Charlson comorbidities (i.e. 0, 1–2 or ≥3), alcohol use and dependence, mental health conditions, drug-related dependence and the log of pre-injury cumulative hospital LOS